Leadership and Motivation within the Police Organization

CRJ 255 – Police Organizations

CHAPTER 3
Leadership and Motivation within
the Police Organization

Professor James F. Albrecht

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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“Good to Great” Organizations

  • Collins explored the question: “Can a good company become a great company and, if so, how?”
  • Collins’ term “level 5 leader” describes a person with the highest executive leadership capabilities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • The normal short tenure of police chiefs (3-5 years) creates a major challenge as many new programs and policies may not attain full fruition

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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“Good to Great” Organizations

“The executives who ignited the transformations…did not first figure out where to drive the bus and then get people to take it there. No, they first got the right people on the bus (and the wrong people off the bus) and then figured out where to drive it.”

James Collins

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Supervisors & Managers as Leaders

  • The definition of LEADERSHIP is greatly debated
  • Some theories looked at the person (“Great Man” and “Born Leader”) while others looked at the leaders who excelled in extraordinary situations
  • Bennis and Nanus argued that leadership must be examined in the context of:
  • Commitment
  • Complexity
  • Credibility

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Supervisors & Managers as Leaders
Developing Leadership Skills

  • Katz identified three essential skills that a leader should possess:
  • Technical
  • Human
  • Conceptual

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Supervisors & Managers as Leaders
Power, Authority and Leadership

  • Power: The foundation of leadership and necessary ingredient in influencing others to perform their duties
  • Authority: Formally granted by the organization and position held
  • Power may also be informal and demonstrated by people not having formal authority, but who are widely respected in an organization and get others to willingly listen and follow

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Supervisors & Managers as Leaders
Empowerment

  • Today’s community policing and problem solving (COPPS) era demands self-initiated thinking, innovation, and increased officer discretion
  • Empowerment involves a range of delegated powers and increased autonomy for officers that is well suited in the COPPS era
  • Police leaders striving to empower employees will find guidance from the situational leadership model

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Applying Mintzberg’s View of Chief Executives

  • Henry Mintzberg developed a model for viewing leadership that considers three primary roles that are performed by a police chief:
  • Interpersonal
  • Informational
  • Decision maker

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Strategic Thinking and Planning

It all comes down to the ability to go up and down the ladder of abstraction, and being able to see both the big picture and the operational implications, which are signs of out standing leaders and strategists

-Herocleous

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Strategic Thinking and Planning

  • A rapidly changing world requires police leaders who think, manage, and plan strategically
  • Strategic thinking and planning are necessary; neither is adequate without the other

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Motivation: Content Theories
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  • Maslow founded the humanistic school of psychology, asserting that people are motivated by their lowest unsatisfied need
  • Maslow’s hierarchy illustrates the progression of needs from survival to self-actualization
  • Maslow’s hierarchy helps supervisors to understand officers’ performance and what motivates them by identifying unfilled needs

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Motivation: Content Theories
Argyris Maturity Immaturity

  • Argyris studied human needs, arguing that people progress naturally from immaturity to maturity
  • Argyris viewed an effective organization as one that requires people to be self-responsible, self-directed and self-motivated
  • Organizations are responsible for providing a structure for people to grow and mature

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Motivation: Content Theories
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene

  • Herzberg developed his theory based on a job satisfaction survey of 200 engineers
  • Herzberg distinguished identified hygiene factors that impact job satisfaction and motivation
  • The process of incorporating motivators into a job is called job enrichment
  • Herzberg discovered that people are influenced more by intrinsic motivators than by hygiene factors

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Motivation: Content Theories
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene

 

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Motivation: Process Theories
Vroom’s Expectancy

  • Vroom believed that people are motivated primarily by a felt need that affects behavior – that people are motivated if they perceive the effort will be rewarded, and if the value of the reward is equal to or greater than the effort

 

 

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Motivation: Content Theories
McClelland’s Achievement, Power, and Affiliation Motives

  • McClelland believed peoples’ needs are acquired over time and as a result of experience
  • Three motives/needs important to people in an organization are achievement, power, and affiliation
  • Power and affiliation needs are closely related to success
  • Leaders should put high achievers in positions best suited to meet departments needs

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

*

Motivation: Content Theories
McClelland’s Achievement, Power, and Affiliation Motives

 

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Leading Vs. Managing

“People don’t want to be managed.

They want to be led.”

 

-Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus, 1985

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

*

Leading vs. Managing

  • Leading is related to managing
  • Bennis & Nanus contended that managers are efficiency-driven, while leaders are driven by vision and judgment
  • Managers are people who “do things right” while leaders “do the right things”
  • Policing needs supervisors who are good managers as well as good leaders

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

*

 

Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Leadership: Trait Theory

  • Trait theory focuses on the individual, and supports the idea of “born leaders”
  • Davis identified 56 individual characteristics or traits important to leadership

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • While certain traits may raise the likelihood of effective management, there are no guarantees – good and bad leaders have been found to possess some of the same traits

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Leadership: Behavioral Theories

  • Focuses on behavior in relationship to environment
  • Blake & Mouton’s management grid:
  • Identified two dimensions: concern for production and concern for people

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

*

 

Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Leadership Theories: Situational

  • Hersey & Blanchard believed supervision could be reduced by increasing individuals’ readiness to be delegated tasks
  • The difficulty lies in a leader’s ability to diagnose a person’s abilities, and to adjust their leadership to the given situation

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

*

 

Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

*

Leadership Theories: Contingency

  • Research in the 1950s and 1960s showed one leadership style was not appropriate for all job situations
  • Basic components of Contingency Theory:
  • Achieving a sense of competence is important to people
  • The way people fulfill their needs will vary
  • Competent motivation is most likely to occur when there is a fit between task and organization
  • A sense of competence continues to motivate people even after competence is achieved

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

*

 

Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

*

Leadership Styles

  • Researchers began to study leadership styles when they could not agree on traits
  • Likert’s four leadership styles:
  • Exploitive-Authoritarian
  • Benevolent-Authoritarian
  • Consultative
  • Participative

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

*

 

Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

*

Leadership Styles
Station House and Street Sergeants

  • Van Maanen identified two contrasting types of police sergeants:
  • Station house sergeant
  • Street sergeant
  • Organizationally, action-oriented street sergeants may not be promoted beyond a middle manager’s position
  • But what about the Active Manager and the related enhanced effectiveness?

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

*

 

Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

*

Leading into the New Millennium

  • Heifitz’s book Leadership Without Easy Answers focused on the practical problems of leadership
  • He described the important differences between adaptive and technical problems
  • Some problems require people in a community to change their values, behaviors, and attitudes before a solution is possible
  • Developed four principles of adaptive change

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

*

 

Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

*

Why Leaders Fail

  • Brown provided a list of 13 fatal errors that eroded a leader’s effectiveness:

Refuse to accept personal accountability.

Fail to develop people.

Try to control results instead of influence thinking.

Join the wrong crowd.

Manage everyone the same way.

Forget the importance of profit (cash).

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

*

 

Police Supervision and Management, 3rd edition Peak, Gaines, and Glensor

© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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Why Leaders Fail

  • Brown provided a list of 13 fatal errors (cont.):

Concentrate on problems rather than on opportunities.

Be a buddy, not a boss.

Fail to set standards.

Fail to train their people.

Condone incompetence.

Recognize only top performers.

Try to manipulate people.

 

  • Leadership is hard work, and requires being actively involved with subordinates and vision/values to guide employees’ actions

Police Supervision and Management, Third Ed., by Peak, Gaines, and Glensor. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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Next Week

Please Read

Chapter 4

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