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Human beings have two types of memory which are short-term memory and long-term memory. Short-term memory is the capacity of an individual to hold small information in their brains. In contrast, long-term memory refers to a memory that has or remembers information for an extended period. Significantly, both long-term memory and short-term memory are crucial to a person. However, both the long-term and the short-term memory can all be lost for different reasons. Ideally, the elderly or the aging people are always identified with short-term memory loss, which makes them forget small things such as forgetting where you dropped your car keys, among other small basic things. On the contrary, long-term memory can be lost due to an individual being involved in injuries or, in some cases, infection and trauma. Therefore, long-term memory causes an individual to forget big things and issues such as forgetting their names, important events they might have attended, among many others (Ricker et al., 2014).

Consequently, several reasons make a person forget or experience memory loss, such as lack of good night’s rest. According to the research, individuals lacking enough sleep are at risk of failing to think and retain information. Researchers and experts also suggest that an adult should have a maximum of seven-hour uninterrupted sleep. Side effects of medication are also another cause of memory loss. Such individuals under specific medication can experience memory loss. Stress, anxiety, depression, Drug abuse, dementia, and stroke are also majorly associated with memory loss. According to researchers, short-term memory is limited in terms of capacity such that it is also limited to the number of things it can hold at ago (Ranganath et al., 2015).

The researchers further state that since short-term memory is limited in capacity, it can only hold some information with less power than short-term memory. After that, the data stored I the short-term memory will then be distorted or replaced by another new tip with a similar capacity as the one being distorted. As stated earlier, human beings have two types of memory; research also reveals that there is a third type of memory referred to as the working memory. Working memory is almost similar to short-term memory (Quinlan et al., 2015). Therefore, working memory functions when an individual is doing things such as cooking or calculating arithmetic without paper. Consequently, the following is an outline of a research topic, “forgetting in short-term and long-term memory.”

An Outline Of, Forgetting in Short-And Long-Term Memory.

I. Introduction

A. TopicForgetting in Short-Term and Long-Term Memory.

B. Issue: Human memory can both forget or lose information in both the long and the short term.

C. Thesis: The structure of short-term memory and long-term memory and how information is lost.

II. The structure of short-term memory.

A. I am differentiating between long-term and short-term memory.

B. What shows the difference between the short-term and the long-term memory

C. Separate buffers in short-term memory. (Jonides et al. 2008)

III. Models that combine fast and long-term memory.

A. Separate long-term and short-term memory.

B. Unitary store models

IV. Conclusion. Short-term memory majorly results because of aging, while long-term memory loss happens due to injuries caused to the body, especially the head. Additionally, medication stress, drugs, and many other substances cause long-term memory loss, as revealed by the sources.



John Jonides, Richard L. Lewis, Derek Evan Nee, Cindy A. Lustig, Marc G. Berman, and Katherine Sledge Moore, The Mind and Brain of Short-Term Memory, 2007, WAKE FOREST UNIVERSITY, pp.3-17

Joshua A. Quinlan, Ian Neath, and Aimée M. Surprenant, Positional Uncertainty in the Brown-Peterson Paradigm, 2015, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canadian Psychological Association, pp. 1-8

Dennis Norris, Short-Term Memory, and Long-Term Memory are Still Different, 2017, psychological bulletin, ResearchGate, pp.2-21

Nelson Cowan, Chapter 20 What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? 2008, ResearchGate, Britain, pp.25-29

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