HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT HRM

CATANO | WIESNER | HACKETT

NELSON SERIES IN HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT HRM

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IN CANADA SEVENTH EDITION

C ATA N O W IE S N E R H A C K E T T

RECRUITM ENTAND SELECTION IN CANADA

SEVENTH EDITION

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION IN CANADA SEVENTH EDITION

Part of the market-leading series in Human Resources Management, this new seventh edition of Recruitment and Selection in Canada has been updated to reflect current examples and research.

The Nelson Series in Human Resources Management is the best opportunity for students and practitioners to access a complete set of HRM products. The series provides quick access to information across many HRM disciplines and over the years has become an essential source of information, meeting the requirements for professional designation from the CPHR Canada and the provincial HR associations. This one-stop resource will prove useful for anyone looking for solutions for the effective management of people.

Other titles in the Nelson Series in Human Resources Management: Strategic Human Resources Planning, Monica Belcourt, Mark Podolsky Industrial Relations in Canada, Robert Hebdon, Travor C. Brown Management of Occupational Health and Safety, E. Kevin Kelloway, Lori Francis, Bernadette Gatien Managing Performance through Training and Development, Alan M. Saks, Robert R. Haccoun Strategic Compensation in Canada, Richard J. Long, Parbudyal Singh

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Victor M. catano SAINT MARY’S UNIVERSITY

Willi H. Wiesner McMASTER UNIVERSITY

rick D. Hackett McMASTER UNIVERSITY

series eDitor:

Monica Belcourt YORK UNIVERSITY

RecRuitment and Selection

in canada seventh edition

NELSON SERIES IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTHRM

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Recruitment and Selection in Canada, Seventh Edition

Victor M. Catano, Willi H. Wiesner, Rick D. Hackett, and Monica Belcourt

VP, Product and Partnership Solutions: Claudine O’Donnell

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library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication

Catano, Victor M. (Victor Michael), 1944-, author Recruitment and selection in Canada / Victor M. Catano, Saint Mary’s University, Willi H. Wiesner, McMaster University, Rick D. Hackett, McMaster University ; series editor, Monica Belcourt, York University. — Seventh edition.

(Nelson Education series in human resource management)Includes index.ISBN 978-0-17-676466-1 (softcover)

1. Employees—Recruiting—Canada— Textbooks.  2. Employee selection— Canada—Textbooks.  I. Hackett, Rick D., 1956-, author  II. Wiesner, Willi H. (Willi Harry), 1952-, author  III. Title.  IV. Series: Nelson Education series in human resource management

HF5549.5.R44C35 2018 658.3’11 C2017-904905-4

ISBN-13: 978-0-17-676466-1 ISBN-10: 0-17-676466-6

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To my wife, Jan, and to our sons Victor and Michael and their families; you are the joy of my life. Also to Spike, my faithful cat, who once again helped me type the manuscript.

Vic Catano

To my precious wife, Linda, our children Jared (and Breanne) and Rachel (and Brian), and our grandchildren, Reiner and Adelei. You bring joy to my life.

Willi Wiesner

To Patti, my wife of 33 years, and my two sons, Aaron and Tyler, for their ever present unconditional love and support.

Rick D. Hackett

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vNEL

About the Series xvii

About the Authors xviii

Preface xx

Acknowledgments xxvii

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Recruitment and Selection 1

Chapter 2 Foundations of Recruitment and Selection I: Reliability and Validity 27

Chapter 3 Foundations of Recruitment and Selection II: Legal Issues 65

Chapter 4 Job Analysis and Competency Models 113

Chapter 5 Job Performance 179

Chapter 6 Recruitment: The First Step in the Selection Process 228

Chapter 7 Selection I: Applicant Screening 290

Chapter 8 Selection II: Testing and Other Assessments 326

Chapter 9 Selection III: Interviewing 392

Chapter 10 Decision Making 457

Glossary 514

Index 520

BrieF contents

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viiNEL

contents

About the Series xvii About the Authors xviii Preface xx Acknowledgments xxvii

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Recruitment and Selection 1

Chapter Learning Outcomes 1

Opening Vignette: Signs that You Made a Bad Hire 2

Why Recruitment and Selection Matter 3

Recruitment and Selection as Strategic Objectives 6

Vision, Mission, and Values Statements 6

Develop Strategic Objectives 7

Analyze the External Environment 8

Identify the Competitive Edge 12

Determine the Competitive Position 13

Implement the Strategy 14

Evaluate the Performance 15

Recruitment and Selection and the HR Profession 15

An Introduction to Ethical Issues and Professional Standards 18

Ethical Dilemmas in Recruitment and Selection 20

Human Resources and the Internet 21

Summary 23

Key Terms 23

Discussion Questions 23

Exercises 23

Case: Recruitment and Selection at Google 24

Endnotes 25

Chapter 2 Foundations of Recruitment and Selection I: Reliability and Validity 27

Chapter Learning Outcomes 27

Opening Vignette: The “Sham Psychometric Test” Controversy 28

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viii NELcontents

The Recruitment and Selection Process 31

The Hiring Process 31

A Selection Model 34

Building a Foundation 36

Reliability 36

Interpreting Reliability Coefficients 38

Measurement Error 40

Factors Affecting Reliability 40

Methods of Estimating Reliability 41

Choosing an Index of Reliability 44

Validity 44

Validation Strategies 45

Factors Affecting Validity Coefficients 51

Usefulness of Validity Coefficients 53

Bias and Fairness 53

Bias 53

Fairness 56

The Legal Environment and Selection 58

Summary 59

Key Terms 60

Discussion Questions 60

Exercises 61

Case: Emotional Intelligence or Cognitive Ability? 62

Endnotes 63

Chapter 3 Foundations of Recruitment and Selection II: Legal Issues 65

Chapter Learning Outcomes 65

Opening Vignette: No Babies Allowed 66

Part I: A Basic Background in Legal Requirements for Nondiscriminatory Recruitment and Selection 67

Constitutional Law 68

Human Rights Law 68

Employment Equity 74

Labour Law, Employment Standards, and Privacy Legislation 76

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ixNEL contents

Part II: Key Legal Concepts in Recruitment and Selection 81

Direct Discrimination 83

Adverse Effect Discrimination 87

Adverse Impact 89

Workplace Discrimination in the United States 90

Direct Discrimination and Adverse Effect Discrimination 92

Bona Fide Occupational Requirement 94

Reasonable Accommodation 95

Individual Accommodation 96

Reasonable Alternative 98

Sufficient Risk 99

Legal Concepts Applied to Recruitment and Selection 100

Part III: Some Practical Guidelines in Nondiscriminatory Recruitment and Selection 102

Key Practical Considerations in Nondiscriminatory Recruitment 102

Legal Requirements and HR Practice 105

Summary 106

Key Terms 107

Discussion Questions 108

Exercises 108

Case: Victim of Discrimination? 110

Endnotes 111

Chapter 4 Job Analysis and Competency Models 113

Chapter Learning Outcomes 113

Opening Vignette: Hiring the Right Person 114

Part I: Work and Job Analysis 114

What is Work and Job Analysis? 114

Subject-Matter Experts 118

Job Analysis and Employment Law—A Reprise 119

Job Analysis Methods 120

Getting Started: Gathering Job-Related Information 121

Work and Worker-Oriented Job Analysis 125

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x NELcontents

Survey of Work-Oriented Job Analysis Methods 126

Best Practice in Choosing Job Analysis Methods 146

Part II: The Role of Competencies in Recruitment and Selection 154

What is a “Competency”? 155

Competency Framework or “Architecture” 156

Competency Categories 156

Competency Dictionaries 159

Competency Profiles 160

Legal Defensibility of Competency Models 162

Assessing Employee Competencies 162

Validating Competency-Based Selection Systems 164

Competency Modelling versus Job Analysis 165

Leadership Competency Models 166

Summary 168

Key Terms 169

Discussion Questions 169

Exercises 170

Case: The Need for Job Analysis 171

Endnotes 172

Chapter 5 Job Performance 179

Chapter Learning Outcomes 179

Opening Vignette: Using Facebook to Make Hiring Decisions 180

Job Performance 181

Job Performance as a Multidimensional Concept 184

Performance Dimensions 185

A Multidimensional Model of Job Performance 185

Task Performance 187

Contextual Performance 187

Adaptive Work Performance 189

Counterproductive Work Behaviours 191

Types of Counterproductive Work Behaviours 191

Withdrawal Behaviours 191

Workplace Deviance 194

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xiNEL contents

Predicting Task, Contextual, Adaptive, and Counterproductive Job Performances 198

Measuring Performance 200

Effective Performance Measures 201

Identifying Criterion Measures 203

Multiple, Global, or Composite Criteria 203

Consistency of Job Performance 205

Job Performance Criteria and Performance Appraisal 206

Objective Performance Appraisal Measures 206

Subjective Performance Appraisal 208

Absolute Rating Systems 210

Perceived Fairness and Satisfaction with Rating Systems 214

Creating a Job Performance Database 215

Human Rights and Performance Appraisal 215

Summary 217

Key Terms 218

Discussion Questions 218

Exercises 219

Case: The Quality of Performance Assessment 219

Endnotes 220

Chapter 6 Recruitment: The First Step in the Selection Process 228

Chapter Learning Outcomes 228

Opening Vignette: Employers Brew Up New Ways to Recruit Talent 229

Part I: Strategic Recruitment 231

External Factors 231

Internal Factors 236

Organization Analysis 237

Job Analysis 238

Human Resources Planning 238

Recruitment Action Plan 239

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xii NELcontents

Part II: Recruitment Sources 243

Traditional Recruitment Sources 244

External Candidates 246

E-Recruiting: Use of the Internet and Social Networks 253

Comparison of Recruitment Methods 262

Frequency of Use of Recruiting Methods 264

Part III: Attracting Job Applicants 264

The Organizational Context 266

Corporate Image and Applicant Attraction 267

The Person–Organization Fit 271

Communication and Perception 272

Accurate Expectations 273

Realistic Job Previews 274

Expectation-Lowering Procedures 276

Decision-Making Training 277

Evaluating Recruiting Efforts 277

Recruitment Audit 279

Summary 280

Key Terms 280

Discussion Questions 281

Exercises 281

Case: Recruiting in a Competitive Environment 282

Endnotes 283

Chapter 7 Selection I: Applicant Screening 290

Chapter Learning Outcomes 290

Opening Vignette: Sales Growth Trends at Living Healthy Inc. in Poor Health 291

Applicant Screening 292

Recruitment, Screening, and Selection 292

Screening Methods 293

Application Forms 294

Weighted Application Blanks 295

Biographical Data 297

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xiiiNEL contents

Résumés 301

Reference Checks 305

Work Experience 309

Social Media Networks 311

Virtual Career Fairs 313

Virtual Job Auditions 313

Summary 314

Key Terms 314

Discussion Questions 315

Exercises 315

Case: In Search of a Communications Director at ABC Glass, Inc. 316

Endnotes 317

Chapter 8 Selection II: Testing and Other Assessments 326

Chapter Learning Outcomes 326

Opening Vignette: Listening to the Airport Guru 327

What Do You Know About Employment Testing? 327

Employment Testing 328

Choosing a Test 328

Ability and Aptitude Tests 330

Emotional Intelligence 339

Psychomotor Ability Tests 341

Physical and Sensory/Perceptual Ability Tests 341

Physical Fitness and Medical Examinations 342

Pre-Employment Drug and Alcohol Testing 345

Work Samples and Simulation Tests 347

Assessment Centres 352

Personality Inventories 355

Polygraph Testing 362

Honesty/Integrity Testing 362

Evaluating Effectiveness of HR Assessments 367

Comparing Selection Predictors 367

Applicant Reactions 370

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xiv NELcontents

Summary 371

Key Terms 372

Discussion Questions 373

Exercises 373

Case: Applicant Testing at the RCMP 374

Endnotes 375

Chapter 9 Selection III: Interviewing 392

Chapter Learning Outcomes 392

Opening Vignette: The Hiring Interview 393

Purposes and Uses of the Interview 394

The Cost of Interviewing 395

Screening Interviews 396

Screening Interview Format 396

Decisions Based on the Screening Interview 399

Applicant Behaviours and Interviewer Impressions 399

Value of the Screening Interview 399

Predictive Validity of Screening Interviews 402

Cautions on Using Screening Interviews 402

A Model of Information Processing and Decision Making in the Interview 403

Unstructured Interviews 407

Attempts to Improve Interview Effectiveness 412

Structuring Employment Interviews 413

Panel and Serial Interviews 413

Structured Employment Interview Techniques 416

The Experience-Based Interview 421

Comparison of the Structured Interview Approaches 422

Structured Interviews in Practice 424

Interview Practice and Human Rights 427

Designing Interview Questions 430

Interviewer Training 431

Interview Coaching for Applicants 432

Other Approaches to Interviewing 432

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xvNEL contents

Research Issues 435

Summary 436

Key Terms 437

Discussion Questions 437

Exercises 438

Case: Attracting and Retaining Millennials 440

Endnotes 441

Chapter 10 Decision Making 457

Chapter Learning Outcomes 457

Opening Vignette: Should We “Trust Our Gut” on Selection Decisions? 458

The Context of Selection Decisions 460

Selection Errors 461

Collection and Combination of Information 464

Why Do Employers Resist Using Statistical Approaches? 466

Group Decision Making 468

Incremental Validity 470

Setting Cutoff Scores 472

Decision-Making Models 472

Unit and Rational Weighting 473

Multiple Regression Model 474

Multiple Cutoff Model 477

Multiple Hurdle Model 478

Combination Models 479

Profile Matching Model 480

Making Selection Decisions 482

Top-Down Selection 482

Banding 482

Practical Considerations 483

Making Selection Decisions: Conclusions 484

Hiring Selected Applicant(s) 485

Preparing to Make a Job Offer 485

Making a Job Offer 486

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xvi NEL

Employment Letters and Contracts 492

Acceptance and Implementation of Employment Letters and Contracts 500

Summary 502

Key Terms 503

Discussion Questions 504

Exercises 504

Case: Selection System at Google 506

Endnotes 509

Glossary 514

Index 520

contents

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xviiNEL

aBout tHe series

More than ever, human resources management (HRM) professionals need the knowl- edge and skills to design HRM policies and practices that not only meet legal require- ments but also are effective in supporting organizational strategy. Increasingly, these professionals turn to published research and books on best practices for assistance in the development of effective HR policies and practices. The books in the Nelson Series in Human Resources Management are the best source in Canada for reliable, valid, and cur- rent knowledge about HRM.

The texts in this series include:

• Managing Performance through Training and Development

• Management of Occupational Health and Safety

• Recruitment and Selection in Canada

• Strategic Compensation in Canada

• Strategic Human Resources Planning

• Industrial Relations in Canada

• Research, Measurement, and Evaluation of Human Resources

The Nelson Series in Human Resources Management represents a significant develop- ment in the field of HRM for many reasons. Each book in the series was the first and is now a market leader in the functional area. Furthermore, HR professionals in Canada must work with Canadian laws, statistics, policies, and values. This series serves their needs. It is the only opportunity that students and practitioners have to access a complete set of HRM books, standardized in presentation, which enables them to access informa- tion quickly across many HRM disciplines. Students who are pursuing HR designations through their provincial HR associations will find the books in this series invaluable in preparing for the knowledge exams. This one-stop resource will prove useful to anyone looking for solutions for the effective management of people.

The publication of this series signals that the HRM field has advanced to the stage where theory, research, and evidence-based experience guide practice. The books in the series present the best and most current research in the functional areas of HRM. Research is supplemented with examples of the best practices used by Canadian compa- nies that are leaders in HRM. The books serve as an introduction to the functional area for the new student of HR and as a validation source for the more experienced HRM practitioner. Cases, exercises, and endnotes provide opportunities for further discussion and analysis.

As you read and consult the books in this series, I hope you share my excitement in being involved and knowledgeable about a profession that has such a significant impact on the achievement of organizational goals, and on employees’ lives.

Monica Belcourt, Ph.D., FHRL Series Editor July 2017

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xviii NEL

aBout tHe autHors

Victor M. catano Dr. Catano is Professor of Industrial and Organizational Psychology at Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. He is a registered psychologist in Nova Scotia and a member of the Human Resources Association of Nova Scotia.

He is a past editor of Canadian Psychology and has acted as a reviewer for numerous scholarly journals and granting agencies. He has published over 250 scholarly articles, conference papers, and technical reports. Dr.

Catano’s current research interests include personnel psychology; the psychology of labour relations; organizational and environmental constraints on productivity; and the impact of psychological environments on the health, safety, and productivity of workers. Dr. Catano also has extensive consulting experience in personnel selection with both private and public organizations.

In recognition of his contributions to the science and practice of psychology in Canada, Dr. Catano was elected a Fellow by the Canadian Psychological Association and an honorary member by the Canadian Forces Personnel Selection Officers Association. He is a recipient of the Canadian Psychological Association’s Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training and the Canadian Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology’s Distinguished Scientist Award. The Human Resources Association of Nova Scotia awarded him an honorary membership in recognition of his distinguished contributions to human resources in Canada.

Willi H. Wiesner Dr. Wiesner is Associate Professor of Human Resources and Management and Director of the MBA Program at the DeGroote School of Business, McMaster University. He has served as Institute Coordinator and President of the Canadian Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and as Chair of the Human Resources and Management Area of the DeGroote School of Business at McMaster University from 1997 to 2008 and 2012 to 2013. Dr. Wiesner advises firms in both the private and public sector and gives workshops on employee selection,

performance appraisal, work-team effectiveness, and other human resources areas. His recent research and publication activities have focused on employment interviewing and selection, group decision making, and work-team effectiveness.

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xixNEL aBout tHe autHors

rick D. Hackett Dr. Hackett is a Professor and Canada Research Chair of Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance at the DeGroote School of Business, McMaster University. He is Associate Editor of the Journal of Business and Psychology, past Editor-in-Chief of the Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, Fellow of the Canadian Psychological Association, and Past-President of the Canadian Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. From 2001 to 2003, Dr. Hackett was Visiting Scholar at the Hong Kong University of Science

and Technology. He consults employers on pre-employment psychological testing and researches leadership and its impact on individual and organizational outcomes.

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xx NEL

PreFace

Recruitment and Selection in Canada, Seventh Edition, is designed to meet the needs of both students and practitioners working in human resources or personnel psychology. It provides an up-to-date review of the current issues and methodologies that are used in recruiting and selecting employees to staff Canadian organizations. Over the years, the field of personnel selection and staffing has become more quantitative and subject to both federal and provincial human rights legislation. This book provides an intro- duction to these more technical areas in an easy-to-read style. Every chapter includes examples, discussion questions, cases, and other materials that illustrate how the prac- tices discussed in the text are carried out in both private- and public-sector organizations in Canada. Many of these illustrations are drawn from current events reported in the media and are presented in Recruitment and Selection Today feature boxes.

// MEETINg ScIENTIfIc ANd LEgAL STANdARdS Recruitment and Selection in Canada provides an introduction to sound procedures in recruitment and selection that meet scientific, professional, and Canadian legal stan- dards. It presents recruitment and selection as essential components of strategic HR planning and emphasizes their role in enhancing productivity. Starting with a review of the social and economic factors that affect recruitment and selection, the text next pres- ents key elements in a recruitment and selection system, with an emphasis on the need for a solid scientific and legal foundation on which to build that system. Job analyses and competency modelling are introduced as the keys to developing a recruitment and selection system and to understanding the relationship between improved selection sys- tems and increased organizational productivity. Also discussed are contemporary devel- opments related to competencies, counterproductive work behaviours, interviewing, cognitive ability testing, personality testing, drug and honesty testing, decision making, and finalizing the deal with the selected candidate. Recognizing the constraints under which organizations operate, the text presents recruitment and selection within the con- text of a global market and competition.

// A cANAdIAN REfERENcE ON REcRUITMENT ANd SELEcTION The seventh edition of Recruitment and Selection in Canada offers several advantages to both students and practitioners. First, it provides an up-to-date introduction to the cur- rent developments in recruiting and selecting employees within a Canadian context. The approach taken is to incorporate the Canadian material organically into the develop- ment of the text rather than “Canadianizing” a popular American text. This approach has allowed us to focus in greater detail on issues of concern to Canadian organizations and to Canadian HR practitioners. Canadian examples and websites, and links to both

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xxiPREFACENEL

public and private organizations, and relevant examples from around the world, are featured.

We have attempted to provide as complete coverage as possible of current issues in recruitment and selection by integrating the role of recruitment and selection in a context of strategic human resources planning. The text emphasizes the necessity of satisfying both professional and legal requirements at all stages of the recruit- ment and selection process, and offers guidelines on how this can be accomplished. The Recruitment and Selection Notebook feature boxes highlight the key points that flow from the text.

Increasingly, both students and practitioners must understand the scientific, tech- nical, and legal aspects that form the basis of current recruitment and selection practices. We have provided a complete and thorough introduction to this essential material in a readable, nontechnical style that minimizes scientific jargon and emphasizes under- standing of the basic concepts in a context of application. To assist understanding, we have also included learning outcomes at the start of each chapter, definitions of impor- tant concepts throughout each chapter, and both exercises and case material at the end of each chapter to illustrate important principles and concepts.

This text is designed for one-semester courses in HR management, staffing, per- sonnel psychology, and personnel selection. It is also ideal for short courses that form part of diploma, certificate, or professional upgrading programs. The previous edi- tions of Recruitment and Selection in Canada were adopted for courses taught as part of degree programs in colleges and universities; as well, they were used as a standard reference for graduate courses and still can be found on the bookshelves of many HR professionals.

// AddRESSINg ThE NEEdS Of STUdENTS ANd TEAchERS One of the strengths of this text is the systematic integration of the different aspects of recruitment and selection with current legal and technical practices. However, the needs of students and instructors may differ across the settings in which this text may be used. Some students may already have had a substantial introduction to measurement issues in other courses that form part of their program. In those cases, parts of Chapter 2 can be omitted. Later chapters in the text, however, refer to material contained in Chapter 2 or to concepts introduced in it, but the student can easily read the relevant sections of this chapter in conjunction with the later reference.

Similarly, Chapter 5 includes a brief discussion of issues related to performance and an expanded section on counterproductive work behaviours. We believe that students must be conversant with all aspects of the recruitment and selection system, and measure- ment of performance is essential to evaluating the effectiveness of any selection system. Often the problem with poor selection systems is not the selection instruments used, but how performance is measured. Performance is the bottom line and we have integrated that into the text with a very brief introduction of some performance measurement tools. We rely on other courses in performance management to present detailed instruc- tion on the use of these tools. In light of current thinking, we have included a section on adaptive performance apart from contextual performance in discussing performance as a multidimensional construct.

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xxii PREFACE NEL

// chANgES IN ThE SEVENTh EdITION We consulted with users and non-users of the sixth edition to determine how we could improve this text and incorporated much of that feedback into the seventh edition. In addition to a more practical application of topics, new photos with captions, replacing and updating some of the opening vignettes, and adding new discussion questions and titles to the end-of-chapter cases, the following list highlights some of the new and updated topics that have been included in the seventh edition.

chApTER 1—AN INTROdUcTION TO REcRUITMENT ANd SELEcTION

• Chapter 1 has been thoroughly updated and reorganized with a stronger focus on strategic planning and how it applies to recruitment and selection.

• The content is now more explicitly tied to Figure 1.1, Example of a Human Resources System.

• Expanded coverage of talent management as it relates to recruitment and selection.

• Updated section on Economic Climate and Rapid Advances in Technology and the Internet.

• Reduced the statistics and added a discussion of HR departments needing to recognize the changing face of the Canadian labour market.

• New Recruitment and Selection Notebook 1.2, Become a CPHR.

• Updated coverage of CPHR Code of Ethics & Rules of Professional Conduct (2016).

• Added new end-of-chapter case: Recruitment and Selection at Google.

chApTER 2—fOUNdATIONS Of REcRUITMENT ANd SELEcTION I: RELIAbILITY ANd VALIdITY

• New margin glossary term, “competencies,” in the chapter introduction.

• Increased coverage of reliability to include expanded discussion of cognitive ability.

• We added a new glossary term and coverage of “face validity.”

• Expanded coverage of bias and fairness with fuller discussion and explanation as it relates to Figure 2.6, An Example of Range Restriction.

• New Recruitment and Selection Notebook 2.3, Practical Steps to Ensure Reliable and Valid Selection.

• Added new end-of-chapter case: Emotional Intelligence or Cognitive Ability?

chApTER 3—fOUNdATIONS Of REcRUITMENT ANd SELEcTION II: LEgAL ISSUES

• In the Labour Law, Employment Standards, and Privacy Legislation section: expanded the coverage in Part I: A Basic Background in Legal Requirements for Nondiscriminatory Recruitment and Selection, and the discussion of the Federal Contractors Program (FCP).

• Updated Figure 3.1, Proportion of Complaints Received in 2016 by Ground of Discrimination and Table 3.2, Complaints Received by CHRC by Types of Allegations Cited.

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xxiiiPREFACENEL

• Updated and expanded coverage of privacy issues and legislation in Labour Law, Employment Standards, and Privacy Legislation.

• Expanded the coverage of the four-fifths rule.

chApTER 4—JOb ANALYSIS ANd cOMpETENcY MOdELS

• Updated job analysis and competency modelling to reflect current research.

• New coverage of Licensed Practical Nurse to tie together the different aspects of job analysis and competency modelling.

• Expanded coverage in What Is Work and Job Analysis? section as it relates to strategic planning and organizational analysis.

• Added new Recruitment and Selection Today 4.1, Job Description for a Licensed Practical Nurse at an Assisted Living Facility and 4.2, NOC Description for Licensed Practical Nurse (Code 3233).

• Streamlined coverage of Direct Observation by removing some of the figures.

• Expanded coverage in Worker Traits Inventories section and added new Table 4.6, Sample of Trait Inventory Used as Part of LPN Job Analysis.

• Added new Table 4.7, Core and Job-Specific Competencies for LPNs Working in an Assisted Living Facility and Table 4.8, Sample Behavioural Interview Questions for LPN Applicants at an Assisted Living Facility, and new coverage as it relates to LPN.

chApTER 5—JOb pERfORMANcE

• Expanded discussion of social media and LinkedIn.

• Expanded and updated the coverage of cyberbullying and anti-bullying legisla- tion in Interpersonal Workplace Deviance section.

• In the section related to subjective performance appraisal, added discussion of error (e.g., leniency as it relates to subjective performance ratings).

chApTER 6—REcRUITMENT: ThE fIRST STEp IN ThE SELEcTION pROcESS

• Social network recruiting data illustrated in a new figure (Jobscience).

• Added new Recruitment and Selection Notebook 6.1, Elements of a Plan for Recruiting Members to Increase Diversity.

• Added new section, Attracting the Target Applicant Pool’s Attention, and a new Recruitment and Selection Notebook 6.3, Nine Simple Steps to Writing a Compelling Job Advertisement, offering tips on producing job advertisements to attract the target applicant pool.

• Expanded discussion of executive search firms under Employment Agencies.

• Increased coverage of social network recruiting, including a new Recruitment and Selection Today 6.4, How to Use Social Media as a Recruiting Tool, and new Recruitment and Selection Today 6.6, How Manufacturers Are Recruiting Millennials.

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xxiv PREFACE NEL

chApTER 7—SELEcTION I: AppLIcANT ScREENINg

• Thoroughly revised the chapter by streamlining some of the academic literature, thus making the content more engaging for students.

• Clarified topic coverage and an overall more concise discussion of BIB dimen- sions and LIMRA weighted application blanks, Biographical Data and Concerns Over the Use of Biodata.

• Updated the coverage of résumés and added new references to websites offering instructions on how to prepare an effective résumé.

• Added new coverage of Applicant Tracking System (ATSs).

• Expanded Recruitment and Selection Today 7.2, What to Look for When Examining a Résumé.

• Updated Reference Checks and Negligent Hiring coverage and added a new Recruitment and Selection Notebook 7.1, Measures Toward Avoiding Negligent Hiring Claims.

• Updated coverage on social media networks.

chApTER 8—SELEcTION II: TESTINg ANd OThER ASSESSMENTS

• Streamlined this chapter (especially the section on Assessment Centres) by removing some sections (HIV testing, political skill, and team selection) and updating content to capture recent developments on pre-employment drug and alcohol testing, genetic testing (Bill S-201) and polygraph testing.

• Expanded coverage of job-related KSAOs and practical examples added in the Ability and Aptitude Tests section.

• More concise coverage of Cognitive Ability Tests and Practical Intelligence and Job Knowledge sections, with examples added throughout.

• Added examples in the Work Samples discussion, revised and expanded coverage of situational judgment tests (SJTs), and added coverage of SMEs.

chApTER 9—SELEcTION III: INTERVIEwINg

• Streamlined the coverage of screening and typical screening interviews.

• Added two new Recruitment and Selection Todays: 9.2, Can Computers Replace Recruiters? and 9.6, The Strangest Things People Have Done in Job Interviews.

• More concise coverage of Structured Employment Interview Techniques and The Situational Interview.

• Expanded coverage of behaviourial interviews.

chApTER 10—dEcISION MAKINg

• New opening vignette: Should We “Trust Our Gut” on Selection Decisions? emphasizes the importance of HR professionals knowing how to integrate data

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xxvPREFACENEL

from the different assessments obtained from job candidates.

• New Recruitment and Selection Today 10.2, 5 Benefits of Involving Your Team in the Hiring Decision, highlights the issues related to teams or groups when they make selection decisions.

• Streamlined coverage of banding.

• Revised the end-of-chapter case about Google.

// INSTRUcTOR RESOURcES The Nelson Education Teaching Advantage (NETA) program delivers research-based instructor resources that promote student engagement and higher-order thinking to enable the success of Canadian students and educators. Visit Nelson Education’s Inspired Instruction website at nelson.com/inspired to find out more about NETA.

The following instructor resources have been created for Recruitment and Selection in Canada, Seventh Edition. Access these ultimate tools for customizing lectures and presentations at nelson.com/instructor.

NETA TEST bANK

This resource was written by John Hardisty, Sheridan College. It includes over 450 multiple-choice questions written according to NETA guidelines for effective construction and development of higher-order questions. Also included are over 260 true/false and short-answer questions.

secure online testing system that allows instructors to author, edit, and manage test bank content from anywhere Internet access is available. No special installations or downloads are needed, and the desktop-inspired interface, with its drop-down menus and familiar, intuitive tools, allows instructors to create and manage tests with ease. Multiple test versions can be created in an instant, and content can be imported or exported into other systems. Tests can be delivered from a learning management system, the classroom, or wherever an instructor chooses. Nelson Testing Powered by Cognero for Recruitment and Selection in Canada, Seventh Edition can be accessed through nelson .com/instructor.

NETA pOwERpOINT

Microsoft® PowerPoint® lecture slides for every chapter have been created by Jeff McNally, University of New Brunswick. There is an average of 35 slides per chapter, many featuring key figures, tables, and photographs from Recruitment and Selection in Canada, Seventh Edition. NETA principles of clear design and engaging content have been incorporated throughout, making it simple for instructors to customize the deck for their courses.

The NETA Test Bank is available in a new, cloud-based platform. Nelson Testing Powered by Cognero® is a

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xxvi PREFACE NEL

IMAgE LIbRARY

This resource consists of digital copies of figures, short tables, and photographs used in the book. Instructors may use these JPEGs to customize the NETA PowerPoint or create their own PowerPoint presentations. An Image Library Key describes the images and lists the codes under which the JPEGs are saved. Codes normally reflect the Chapter number (e.g., C01 for Chapter 1), the Figure or Photo number (e.g., F15 for Figure 15), and the page in the textbook. C01-F15-pg26 corresponds to Figure 1-15 on page 26.

NETA INSTRUcTOR gUIdE

This resource was written by Jeff McNally, University of New Brunswick. It is organized according to the textbook chapters and addresses key educational concerns, such as typical stumbling blocks students face and how to address them. Other features include notes for End- of-Chapter Discussion Questions and Case Questions, and Sources of Lecture Enrichment.

Offering personalized paths of dynamic assignments and applications, MindTap is a dig- ital learning solution that turns cookie-cutter into cutting-edge, apathy into engagement, and memorizers into higher-level thinkers. MindTap enables students to analyze and apply chapter concepts within relevant assignments, and allows instructors to measure skills and promote better outcomes with ease. A fully online learning solution, MindTap combines all student learning tools—readings, multimedia, activities, and assessments— into a single Learning Path that guides the student through the curriculum. Instructors personalize the experience by customizing the presentation of these learning tools to their students, even seamlessly introducing their own content into the Learning Path.

// STUdENT ANcILLARIES

Stay organized and efficient with MindTap—a single destination with all the course material and study aids you need to succeed.

Built-in apps leverage social media and the latest learning technology. For example:

• ReadSpeaker will read the text to you.

• Flashcards are pre-populated to provide you with a jump start for review—or you can create your own.

• You can highlight text and make notes in your MindTap Reader. Your notes will flow into Evernote, the electronic notebook app that you can access anywhere when it’s time to study for the exam.

• Self-quizzing allows you to assess your understanding.

• Videos provide additional insights to topics discussed in the textbook.

Visit nelson.com/student to start using MindTap. Enter the Online Access Code from the card included with your text. If a card is not provided, you can purchase instant access at NELSONbrain.com.

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xxviiNEL

acknoWleDgMents

The production of any book is a collaborative effort. Many people, other than the authors whose names appear on the cover, play an important role. We would like to acknowledge their assistance and to thank them for their valuable contributions to this process. We have tried to present in this book the latest scientific foundation for human resources management. We could not have done that without the research compiled by our academic colleagues throughout North America and the experience of human resources practitioners in adapting that research to the workplace. This book would not exist without their work.

We are also indebted to our past and present students who have challenged our ideas and made us be clear in the exposition of our arguments. In particular, we owe a debt to our students at Saint Mary’s and McMaster universities; their feedback on earlier edi- tions of this text was invaluable. Over the years, the book has benefited immensely from the feedback of reviewers and users at various colleges and universities across Canada. We are grateful for their thoughtful comments, which have helped to make this a better text. We hope that the seventh edition continues the improvement of the text, and wish to thank reviewers who assisted in reviewing earlier editions of this textbook: Diane White, Seneca College; John Hardisty, Sheridan College; Karen MacMillan, Western University; Judy Benevides, Kwantlen Polytechnic University; Jeff Young, Mount Saint Vincent University; Mark Podolsky, York University; Lisa Bering, Humber College; and Colleen Morrison, College of the North Atlantic. And for their useful suggestions and thoughtful comments on this edition, we are grateful to the following reviewers: Allan Kozachuk, Saskatchewan Polytechnic; Shamena Maharaj, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre; Steve Risavy, Wilfrid Laurier University, Derek Rolstone, Red River College; Karen Stephens, Camosun College; and Uthpala Tennakoon, Mount Royal University.

Monica Belcourt, the editor for the series, deserves special praise. She was the glue that held everything together and kept the project on track. It is truly the case that without her efforts, this book would not have materialized. We must also acknowledge the patience and professionalism of the team at Nelson: Jackie Wood, Senior Publisher; Elke Price, Content Manager; Amanda Henry, Executive Marketing Manager; Jaime Smith, Production Project Manager; and Karen Rolfe, freelance copy editor.

Finally, we are most grateful to our families and friends who provided us with sup- port and understanding throughout the long nights. They inspired us to think and write clearly.

Victor M. Catano Saint Mary’s University

Willi H. Wiesner McMaster University

Rick D. Hackett McMaster University

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NEL

CHAPTER

1

CHAPTER LEARning OuTCOmEs This chapter introduces the topics of recruitment and selection in Canadian organizations.

AfTER REAding THis CHAPTER, yOu sHOuLd bE AbLE TO:

• recognize the importance and relevance of recruitment and selection to Cana- dian organizations;

• describe where recruitment and selection fit into the organization as a whole and the human resources management system in particular;

• discuss strategic planning as applied to recruitment and selection;

• explain how changes in both the external and internal environments have an impact on recruitment and selection;

• identify which professional associations and groups in Canada have a stake in recruitment and selection; and

• outline basic ethical and professional issues in recruitment and selection.

An inTROduCTiOn TO RECRuiTmEnT And

sELECTiOn

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Recruitment and Selection in Canada, 7e. NEL2

Finding the right candidate for a job is one of the most difficult decisions an organization has to make. Even though we may have an extensive recruitment and selec- tion procedure in place, a bad candidate may slip through. There is no such thing as perfect hiring. The cost of a bad hire can be extensive. According to a study by the Society for Human Resource Management, the cost of a bad hire may be as much as five times the bad hire’s salary, and may even be higher depending on the person’s posi- tion in the company. Bad hires are made often due to a hiring manager having a “gut feeling” about a candidate or because they “liked” the candidate rather than deter- mining if the candidate had the ability and skills to do the job. You can tell early on if you made a bad hiring decision; there are several telltale signs that many research studies have identified.

• not having the skills you expected. The bad hires are unsure how to do the necessary tasks associated with their job, or how to operate essen- tial equipment.

• Constantly complains. The bad hires complain about everything from the work environment to the nature of the work and coworkers. They are always negative.

• Conflicts with coworkers. The bad hires clash with other employees and don’t fit the organiza- tional culture. They are incompatible with other members of the team.

• missed deadlines. New employees may take longer to perform a task and may miss a deadline; however, constantly missing deadlines may indi- cate a more serious problem indicating that they are incapable of doing their job.

• Poor work quality. After an initial learning curve, the bad hires constantly make mistakes. Repeating the same errors after being corrected suggests they cannot learn how to do the job.

• Attendance problems. Continually being late, and taking extended lunch breaks or unexpected time off may indicate the employees are dissatisfied with their job and that the work is not their priority.

• underperformance. Asking questions is important but constantly asking the same questions about their job or role may impede the work and produc- tivity of their coworkers.

• decrease in morale. Poor interpersonal relation- ships with other team members leads to a decrease in unit morale. The bad hires blame coworkers for the problems they are having. They get into arguments with coworkers about anything and everything.

• unhappiness. The employee’s unhappiness may be reflected in constantly criticizing management and coworkers, wasting time on the phone and the Internet, and making unreasonable demands, among others.

• Always on your mind. You are always thinking about the problem hire, even at night in bed. You are losing sleep because you are worried what that person will do next.

What should you do with a bad hire?

You will need to make a decision about whether you can train the new employees to adapt to your company and to their job, transfer them to a different position for which they are better qualified, or whether it is best to cut ties with the employees. Most new hires are on a probationary con- tract that allows the employer to discharge them without penalty. Keeping the employees after that date may lead to significant costs related to their discharge if you cannot show that they are incompetent.

If you decide to terminate the new hire, then you must begin the recruitment and selection process anew. This means learning from what went wrong with the bad hire. What is the best way to recruit the employee? How do we determine if the candidate is both a good fit for the job and the organization? Is the job description up- to-date? What are the skills needed for the job? Should we assess the required skills with more than an interview and résumé? Who should do the interviewing? What are the legal requirements we have to follow in hiring? How will we make a decision after collecting all of this information? Our hope is that this text will help you answer these questions and avoid bad hires.

signs THAT yOu mAdE A bAd HiRE

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NEL 3CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Recruitment and Selection

// Why RecRuitment and Selection matteR Our purpose in writing this book is to reduce bad decisions by laying out the “best practices” in finding and hiring people who will contribute to the overall success of an organization and its products or services. Best practices are valid, reliable, and legally defensible. They must comply with relevant legislation. Throughout this book, we will focus on the best practices to recruit and select talent in a Canadian context.

By definition, best practices are supported by empirical evidence that has been accumulated through accepted scientific procedures. Best practices do not involve “hunches,” “guesses,” or unproven practices. Best practices involve the ethical treat- ment of job applicants throughout the recruitment and hiring process. Best practices result from human resources (HR) professionals following the accepted standards and principles of professional associations. The inability to defend recruitment and selec- tion practices before a judicial tribunal may have serious financial consequences for an organization.

Best practices do not have to be perfect practices. As we will see in later chapters, no selection procedures are free from error and always lead to correct decisions. However, employers must show that their procedures are fair and do not discriminate against pro- tected groups covered by various laws. Recruitment and selection have moved far beyond the time when a manager could look over a few résumés, talk to one or two applicants (who were mostly friends of current employees), and make a hiring decision. If people are an organization’s most important asset, then those responsible for recruiting and selecting personnel must be capable of finding the best person for each position in the organization.

Using “best practices” in recruitment and selection adds value to an organiza- tion and contributes to the success—including positive financial outcomes—of a com- pany. Ployhart, Van Iddekinge, and MacKenzie2 showed how selection of employees through an employment test of cognitive ability and personality led to increases in the human capital (i.e., a unit’s composition of employees’ knowledge, skills, and ability) in 238 units of a restaurant chain, and then to a unit’s service performance and effectiveness.

HR is a very broad field. Figure 1.1 presents a simplified model of some of the major HR functions within an organization. By no means is the model complete; its purpose is to emphasize that recruitment and selection are but one component of the HR system. That component, however, is a very important one that helps an organiza- tion meet its goals and objectives by producing competent, committed, and effective personnel.

Figure 1.2 presents another way of looking at the functions in which HR personnel may become involved. These functions are grouped around the broader function of talent management, which can be thought of as an organization’s commitment to recruit, retain, and develop the most talented and superior employees. It describes an organization’s commitment to aligning all of its processes and systems to retaining and developing a superior work force.3 Talent management gives the line manager a signifi- cant role and responsibility in the recruitment, selection, retention, and development of superior employees with less involvement of HR. In some organizations only top

talent management An organization’s commitment to recruit, retain, and develop the most talented and superior employees.

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Recruitment and Selection in Canada, 7e. NEL4

Performance Management

Strategic Objectives Organizational Requirements

Legislative Environment Legal Rights Human Rights

Vision Mission Values

Social/Economic Environment Globalization Labour Market Demographics Marketplace

Retention Compensation Bene�ts Quality of Work Life Personnel Support

Personnel Requirements Identify HR Requirements Recruit and Select Train and Develop Employ and Promote Exit

Personnel Competent Committed Effective

Work Environment Leadership Occupational Health and Safety Labour/Employee Relations Complaint Resolution

figuRE 1.1

ExAmPLE Of A HumAn REsOuRCEs sysTEm

potential employees are included in the talent management system; in others, talent management applies to all employees. Talent management is a business strategy directed at ensuring the attraction of top talent to the organization.

Part of talent management involves developing an employee’s career across the orga- nization and knowing when suitable positions become vacant in the organization. To be effective with this function, larger organizations rely on Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS). HRIS are computer-based systems that track employee data, the needs

human Resources information Systems (hRiS) Computer-based systems that track employee data, the needs of HR, and the requirements and competencies needed for different positions, among other functions.

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NEL 5CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Recruitment and Selection

of HR, and the requirements and competencies needed for different positions. HRIS software is generally bundled with payroll and accounting functions. HRIS can be cus- tomized to include whatever information the organization believes is important.

We will examine only the recruitment and selection function of talent management in this book. The other books in the Nelson HR series cover the other talent management functions. You may have already taken courses in these areas. We focus on recruitment and selection because they are the means organizations use, for better or for worse, to find and choose employees. To be effective they should follow from an organization’s strategic planning. Our intent in this book is to present those best practices that will lead to the staffing of organizations with the best qualified candidates.

Recruitment is the generation of an applicant pool for a position or job in order to provide the required number of candidates for a subsequent selection or promotion program. Recruitment is done to meet management goals and objectives for the organiza- tion and must also meet current legal requirements (human rights, employment equity, labour law, and other legislation).

Selection is the choice of job candidates from a previously generated applicant pool in a way that will meet management goals and objectives as well as current legal

Recruitment The generation of an applicant pool for a position or job in order to provide the required number of candidates for a subsequent selection or promotion program.

Selection The choice of job candidates from a previously generated applicant pool in a way that will meet management goals and objectives as well as current legal requirements.

Strategic HR Planning

Training & Development

Succession Planning

Compensation & Bene�ts

Performance Management

Career Management

Recruitment & Selection

Talent Management

figuRE 1.2

TALEnT mAnAgEmEnT funCTiOns

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Recruitment and Selection in Canada, 7e. NEL6

requirements. It can involve any of the following functions: hiring at the entry level from applicants external to the organization, promotion or lateral transfer of people within the organization, and movement of current employees into training and development programs.

Effective recruitment and selection practices can mean the difference between an organization’s success or failure. As noted in the opening vignette, bad hires may cost an organization as much as 30 percent of a new hire’s earnings. Differences in skills among job candidates translate into performance differences on the job that have economic consequences for an organization. Hiring people with the right skills or the highest levels of those skills leads to positive economic outcomes for the organization. Hiring a person with the wrong set of skills can lead to disaster for both the person and the organization. Effective recruitment and selection practices identify job applicants with the appropriate level of knowledge, skills, abilities, and other requirements needed for successful perfor- mance in a job or an organization. Effective recruitment and selection strategies flow from an organization’s strategic objectives.

// RecRuitment and Selection aS StRategic objectiveS There are two basic principles that underlie the Human Resource System presented in Figure 1.1. First, HRM must carefully coordinate its activities with the other orga- nizational units and people if the larger system is to function properly and, second, HRM must think strategically in systems terms and have the welfare of the whole organization in mind. Human resources must be fully in touch with the needs of the larger organization and play a strategic role. As a staff unit, the role of HR is to support line units pursuing the central mission of the organization. HR profes- sionals must have an understanding and appreciation of their interdependencies with, and reliance on, other stakeholders throughout the organization. Recruitment and selection must be carried out in the context of the organization’s strategy, not simply as an isolated function divorced from other aspects of the organization. The HR function must be an organizational asset. In today’s competitive, ever changing, and unforgiving business environment, HR must be seen as effectively aligned with the organization’s strategy or will be considered irrelevant by senior managers. The following sections present the seven steps in a strategic planning process relevant to recruitment and selection.

viSion, miSSion, and valueS StatementS

Figure 1.1 shows that an organization’s mission, vision, and values influence its strategic goals and objectives that result in how the organization undertakes to recruit and select talent. The vision and mission statements of organizations are prominently displayed on their websites. Vision statements present an organization’s future aspirations. They describe a future level of excellence or quality that serves to influence the organization’s behaviour.

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NEL 7CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Recruitment and Selection

The vision statement of the Public Service Commission of Canada, which is respon- sible for staffing most positions within the federal government states: “Building tomor- row’s public service today: Modern, impartial and fair.”4

A mission statement should accurately and briefly explain why an organization exists and what it hopes to achieve in the future. Mission statements are statements of the core purpose of the organization; they define the organization’s business; and they are the guiding force that provides employees with a direction, purpose, and context for their activities. WestJet has developed the following mission statement: “To enrich the lives of everyone in WestJet’s world.”5

The vision and mission statements lead to a set of values, which are the principles or beliefs that guide an organization’s work. A value statement is an expression of a com- pany’s core beliefs. Companies write the statement so the company’s staff and clients are aware of the priorities and goals of the company. For example, a company might list a guiding principle as, “Customer service is priority one.” Values are the principles that drive the organization and the strategic objectives that flow from the principles. Canada Post states the following as its core values:

Our Values:

• Transformation – We will innovate and transform to win in the marketplace

• Customer – We serve Canadians with pride and passion

• Integrity – We act responsibly and with integrity

• Respect – We treat each other with fairness and respect

• Safety – We are committed to a safe and healthy environment for all our stakeholders

develop StRategic objectiveS

Strategy is the formulation of organizational objectives, competitive scopes, and action plans for gaining advantage. It is a plan for achieving the organization’s goals. Strategic objectives or activities that flow from the organization’s values guide the work of the organization over a period of time. They are very focused, more so than the expressions and principles in the vision and mission statements.7 In HR, the strategic objective with respect to selection and recruitment of employees is to obtain the best talent in accor- dance with the organization’s values.

As part of developing strategic objectives, HR staff must decide what type of person they seek to recruit and hire and specify the objectives of the recruitment and selection process. Do we want to simply fill positions or do we want to find people who will fit the organization’s values and culture in addition to being a fit with the job? What are the key characteristics that the people we hire should have? What knowledge, skills, ability, and competencies should they bring to the organization? How do we recruit to ensure we have a diverse work force? How do we recruit the type of people we want based on our objectives? How do we ensure that our recruitment and selection process is compliant with legal requirements? In terms of talent management, will the people we recruit and hire lead to the continuing success of the organization? HR staff must address all of these

Strategy Strategy is the formula- tion of organizational objectives, competitive scopes, and action plans for gaining advantage.

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Recruitment and Selection in Canada, 7e. NEL8

questions before starting to recruit and hire people as they have an impact on recruitment and selection procedures. Belcourt and McBey8 present a detailed discussion of strategic HR planning. We examine briefly the relationship of some of these issues to recruitment and selection.

analyze the exteRnal enviRonment

HR managers must be aware of threats and opportunities in the external environment if they are to accomplish their strategic objectives. This process is sometimes referred to as an environmental scan. It involves a review of technology, laws and regulations, technology, social cultural factors, and changing work force demographics, among other factors.9

legiSlative enviRonment

Figure 1.1 shows that the legislative environment is a major determinant of an organiza- tion’s strategic planning. Recruitment and selection must take place within the context of applicable laws and regulations. Most notably these include concerns for the human and legal rights of job applicants and employees.

Today, women, visible minorities, immigrants, and Aboriginal people make up a significant percentage of entrants into an increasingly older Canadian labour force. Visible minorities possess expertise, skills, knowledge of foreign cultures and business practices, and natural trade links with overseas markets that are of value to employers in the current global economy. Special challenges but tremendous opportunities emerge from having a workplace that is increasingly diverse in functional expertise, gender, age, and culture. Additionally, there exists a growing population of people who have physical or mental challenges. Employers cannot discriminate against existing or poten- tial employees with respect to non-job-related characteristics. Employers must hire on the basis of an applicant possessing the knowledge, skills, and abilities or other char- acteristics that are necessary to perform a job. Strategic planning in staffing helps to establish recruitment and selection systems that are legally defensible. In Chapter 3 we will discuss employment equity and human rights legislation that pertains to women, age demographics, visible minorities, Aboriginal people, and those with physical or mental disabilities.

global competition

Foreign trade has always been vital to the Canadian economy, dating back to 1670 when the Hudson’s Bay Company, Canada’s oldest organization, began trading beaver pelts. Canada now participates in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and is considering joining the Trans-Pacific Trade partnership, and a trade agreement with the European Union. As more than half of what is now produced in Canada is exported, we are extremely vulnerable to foreign market conditions. The KOF Swiss Economic Institute produces an annual globalization index of all coun- tries in the world. It ranked Canada as the 10th most globalized country in the world out of the 207 countries it studied. By way of comparison, the Netherlands was

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NEL 9CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Recruitment and Selection

ranked 1st and the United States was ranked 34th. There has been a continual increase in globalization since 1970. The index is based on economic, social, and political glo- balization. The economic dimension of the KOF Index measures an actual trade and investment volume on the one hand, as well as the extent to which countries apply trade and capital movement restrictions to protect their own economies on the other hand. The social dimension of globalization reflects the extent of the dissemination of information and ideas, whereas the political dimension shows the degree of political cooperation between coun- tries. Canada was near the top 5 percent of countries on the social and political globalization scales, but in only the top 20 percent for economic globalization.10

Increasing globalization has changed the level of competition as new players enter international markets and trade barriers between countries are softened. In the retail sector, large U.S.-owned discount chains such as Costco and Walmart are serious threats to the survival of smaller, Canadian-owned retailers that must scramble to increase efficiencies and lower their operating costs. Similarly, competition has led to Hudson’s Bay acquiring the prestigious U.S. retailer Saks Fifth Avenue, and opening Saks stores throughout Canada. Canadian businesses must continually work on improving their competitiveness in providing goods and services domestically and internation- ally. Within the context of higher costs for HR in Canada, companies and organizations must find ways to become more efficient. One of the important ways is to find the best, most produc- tive employees through the use of best practices in staffing that are outlined in this text.

the economic climate

The state of the economy has a profound effect on staffing. Economic booms bring with them skilled labour shortages, so recruitment and retention take on strategic impor- tance and are given high priority. Economic slowdowns or recessions generally lead to cutbacks in jobs, pay, and benefits, or hiring freezes. In these situations HR may be more apt to play a role in letting people go, rather than recruiting people. The objec- tives may be the same—to retain the best qualified talent. In a slowdown many quali- fied people are looking for jobs, so recruitment may be easier for companies that are hiring; however, there are also more unqualified applications to review. The number of people in the applicant pool has a major impact on the quality of those people who are selected for employment. If there are critical shortages of skilled labour or professionals, more emphasis must be placed on recruitment, and companies may become less selec- tive. They may also seek to outsource hiring to placement firms and secure temporary workers, either domestic or foreign. On the other hand, employers can take advantage of an oversupply of labour by placing less emphasis on recruitment and becoming more selective in hiring people.

A Canadian company engaged in the global marketplace.

American companies now competing in Canada.

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Recruitment and Selection in Canada, 7e. NEL10

Rapid advanceS in technology and the inteRnet

Technology is affecting every aspect of our lives, from the way we bank to the way we study and pursue our education. Smart phones have had a tremendous influ- ence on how we communicate with each other and the world. Employers now expect new hires to be computer literate and to be familiar with basic computer software. Employers are also using technology to a greater extent than ever before to recruit and select the best employees, including use of the Internet. Almost all recruiting by the Government of Canada is done through the Internet. Government websites offer job posting and résumé-matching services. According to the government, the benefits of e-recruiting, which we will discuss in greater detail in Chapter 6, are access to a larger pool of candidates, lower recruiting costs, elimination of printing costs and print media deadlines, and the capability for the immediate tracking of results.11 The greater use of technology also brings with it a greater concern for privacy and data security. Cyberattacks can cause disruption to services and email and allow breaches of security leading to identity theft.12

changing WoRk foRce demogRaphicS13

The demographic makeup of the Canadian labour force is also undergoing significant transformations. Those of working age 18–64 comprised 68.9 percent of the population with 42.4 percent between ages 45 and 64. For the first time there were more people in the 55–64 age group, where people begin to retire from the work force, compared to those in the 15–24 age group, where people begin to enter the work force. These changes have significant implications for HR. The working population is getting older with fewer younger workers available.

One of the most significant changes in the Canadian work force has been the aboli- tion of mandatory retirement at age 65 in most provinces and territories. Many older workers in good health see their work life continuing beyond age 65. With an aging population this trend will continue to increase. In an expanding economy, the addi- tion of a significant number of older workers can be absorbed without much impact on unemployment rates, but in times of recession, the addition of post-65 workers leaves less room for hiring new entry-level employees. In the past, retirement at age 65 was seen as a graceful way of having employees leave the work force without any evaluation of their performance. Post-65 workers will pose a problem for human resources. When is it time for an employee to retire and what incentives or procedures should be put in place to encourage post-65 retirement? On the other hand, this age group may present a very experienced applicant pool when the number of younger workers is decreasing, as appears to be the case now in Canada.

The Canadian work force is also more gender balanced, comprising 70.3 percent of males aged 15–65 and 68.5 percent of women aged 15–65. The work force is also more highly educated, with 64.1 percent of those between ages 25 and 65 holding a certificate, diploma, bachelor’s, or postgraduate degree from a trade school, college/CEGEP, or university.14 The Canadian labour force is also more culturally diverse than at any other time in Canadian history. Visible minorities comprise 19.07 percent of the Canadian population, and Aboriginal people make up 4.26 percent.15

HR departments will have to develop policies that are defensible and meet legisla- tive requirements in dealing with these changing workplace demographics. HR depart- ments will need to recognize the changing face of the Canadian labour market in the

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NEL 11CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Recruitment and Selection

recruitment, selection, and evaluation of older workers, younger workers, women, visible minorities, Aboriginal people, and people with disabilities. HR policies will have to accommodate these demo- graphic changes.

type of oRganization

The public sector, both federal and pro- vincial, tends to have more formalized recruitment and selection systems. Gov- ernments are accountable to their elec- torates for managing public employees and, with the exception of political appointees, have established fair recruit- ment and selection procedures that in most cases follow accepted professional standards. Public services tend to be highly unionized (70 percent versus 20 percent in the private sector)16 and to follow negotiated processes for recruit- ment and selection.

In the private sector, recruitment and selection procedures may vary by the type and size of the business or industry. A large segment of the Cana- dian economy is based on small or family-run enterprises. The selection procedures in these types of business may be more informal, as the owners may not have the resources to implement sophis- ticated selection systems. Smaller organizations tend to rely on family and friends of current workers for recruitment of new workers and to use, at most, an unstructured interview in making a selection decision. This is one reason we use more examples from the public sector in this book. In general, larger organizations, public or private, are more likely to use formal recruitment and selection procedures. The challenge for HR is to increase the use of best practices regardless of sector or the size of an organization.

oRganizational ReStRuctuRing

At the same time that technology is reducing the need for labour, organizations must cope with a large segment of their work force that is approaching retirement. To cope with these changes, employers have implemented non-age-related layoffs and early-retirement incentive packages, and have restructured or downsized their enterprises. Most notably, the traditional organizational structure of a pyramid, with a broad base of employees at entry-level positions and fewer employees at each of several higher levels, is being flat- tened. In the coming years, as aging “boomers” retire, will there be an adequate labour supply to replace them? In a seller’s market, more emphasis will have to be placed on

The Canadian work force is composed of many different demographic and ethnic groups.

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Recruitment and Selection in Canada, 7e. NEL12

recruiting, as more organizations compete to hire fewer qualified candidates. Best prac- tices in recruiting and selection will be essential in finding the right employees for an organization.

Redefining jobS

In today’s information era, workers are required to apply a wider range of skills to an ever-changing series of tasks. Individuals just entering the work force may face at least three to four career changes in their lifetime. Younger workers today, unlike their parents, rarely expect to spend their entire working life with the same organization. Employers will expect workers to possess the skills and knowledge of two or three traditional employees. On the factory floor, jobs are moving targets, as they change rapidly. Workers themselves may be asked to move or rotate among positions; to do so they will need to have or be able to acquire multiple generic skills and competencies. This poses special challenges when trying to match people to jobs. Does it make sense to select people on the basis of very specific skills and abilities required by one job? Should employers redefine recruit- ment and selection in terms of finding people with broader skills or competencies that are of value to the organization and cut across many jobs? Using the procedures outlined in this text will help to answer these questions.

unionized WoRk enviRonmentS

Approximately 30 percent of employees in Canada work in a unionized environment. This figure compares to about 12 percent in the United States and over 70 percent in Europe. These figures may be misleading; looking at the rates by sector shows that employees in public or government organizations are considerably higher. In Canada about 20 percent of private organizations are unionized compared to over 70 percent of the public sector.17

The negotiated collective agreements in place in unionized workplaces generally address issues of recruitment and selection. Most agreements require the employer to post any job vacancies in the unit covered by the collective agreement before they can be advertised more broadly. The agreements may also specify how competitions for vacant positions are carried out, including the selection procedures. In many cases, employee seniority may be a deciding factor in awarding a job to an internal applicant.

HR practitioners working in a unionized environment must know the requirements of any applicable collective agreement with respect to recruitment and selection proce- dures. Failure to follow the procedures outlined in the agreement may lead to grievances and arbitration, even if the HR practitioner is concerned about the soundness of the negotiated procedures from a technical standpoint. The best way to improve the proce- dures is to have HR involved in the negotiating process.

identify the competitive edge

Organizations using effective recruitment and selection practices gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Organizations that are better able to attract, select and retain the best talent will be more competitive and successful. They can do this by identifying their target group of applicants and designing their recruitment message to

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NEL 13CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Recruitment and Selection

emphasize the attributes that are attractive to the target group.18 They can help to achieve this by using selection practices that will lead to hiring the right people.

A two-year study by the Work Foundation, in England, established that businesses with integrated HR practices, including recruitment and selection, enjoyed higher profit margins and productivity than those without. The study concluded that if an organiza- tion increased its investment in HR by just 10 percent, it would generate gross profits of £1500 per employee.19 In addition, progressive HR practices lead to greater organi- zational commitment on the part of employees and motivate them to exhibit proper role behaviour, resulting in lower compensation costs, higher-quality work, and higher productivity; as well, good HR practices reduce dysfunctional behaviours and lead to lower operating costs and greater profitability.20

deteRmine the competitive poSition

Jack Welch, the former head of General Electric, wrote that hiring good people is hard, but hiring great people is brutally hard. To win, companies must get the right people in place; without them, all the clever business strategies and technologies are ineffective.21 In this regard, companies and organizations must decide what they wish to compete with other firms for the best talent, supposing that is the value decision they hold. One way of obtaining a competitive advantage is to employ the best practices in recruiting and selecting staff.

beSt pRacticeS

To remain competitive, organizations must have in place HR strategies for recruiting, identifying, and selecting employees who will contribute to the overall effectiveness of the organization. With respect to recruitment and selection, the old ways of hiring on the basis of a résumé and a brief interview (or on whom you know) do not work in the new economy. Those old practices may also lead an employer astray of new legal requirements as well as to an underperforming organization.

The socio-economic changes taking place in today’s workplace have an impact on HR recruitment and selection. Today, more than ever before, effective recruitment and selection matter. Recruitment and selection do not take place in isolation. They are influ- enced not only by the events occurring in broader society that affect the organization as a whole, but also by the somewhat narrower context of the organization itself. Recruitment and selection play an important role in the HRM function. Effective HRM contributes to organizational survival, success, and renewal.22

How do employers ensure that the people they hire will have the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform the jobs for which they are being hired? How do employers decide that one candidate has “more” of the required abilities than another? More fundamentally, how do employers know that the knowledge, skills, and abilities that they seek in new hires are actually needed for a specific job? How do employers ensure that their hiring policies and procedures will treat candidates from different gender and ethnic groups fairly, as part of the recruitment and selection process? How do employers accommodate people with disabilities in both recruitment and selection? These are just a few of the questions that must be addressed by any HR manager or practitioner in setting up a recruitment and selection system that will enhance the organization’s competitive position. These are some of the questions we will seek to answer throughout this book.

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Recruitment and Selection in Canada, 7e. NEL14

implement the StRategy

Once the strategy for recruitment and selection has been developed, HR must adopt a process to put the strategy into action. It needs to specify the steps that should be taken to implement the strategy that lead to obtaining the strategic goals. HR must outline the steps that are needed to get the job done. If the goal is to recruit, select, and retain the best talent, what are the steps in the action plan that will help accom- plish this? Recruitment and Selection Notebook 1.1 presents the elements that should be covered in a recruitment and staffing action plan. We will cover all of these topics throughout the text by presenting the best practices that meet scientific, legal, and practical considerations.

RECRuiTmEnT And sELECTiOn nOTEbOOK 1.1

ElEMENTS OF A RECRuITMENT ANd SElECTION ACTION PlAN

1. develop Recruitment strategy

• Identify number of positions to be filled

• Establish selection committee

• Review organization’s goals and objectives based on strategic HR plan

• Establish budget for the recruitment process

• Establish timelines for recruitment and selection activities

• develop/review job description for positions

• develop selection criteria

• develop profile of “ideal” applicant

• develop job advertisement/recruiting materials

2. develop the Applicant Pool

• Review state of the labour market

• Consider employment equity issues

• determine whether recruitment will be internal or external

• In a unionized workplace, identify any collective agreement clauses that apply

• Identify target applicant pool

• Identify recruitment methods to be used

• Place ad/recruiting materials in agreed-on media

3. screen the Applicant Pool

• determine whether applicant pool is large enough; if not, renew recruitment efforts

• Screen job candidates’ application forms and résumés

• Conduct short screening interviews

• Select “long list” of candidates for further review

4. Review and selection of Job Applicants

• Selection committee develops shortlist of candidates

• Arrange visits of short-listed candidates to company

• Conduct realistic job preview for candidates

• Conduct valid and reliable employment tests

• Conduct behavioural-based selection interview

• Identify leading candidate(s) for position

• Complete reference and background checks on leading candidates

• Make hiring recommendation

• Contingent on offer of employment, arrange for any required medical or physical examinations

5. Evaluate the Recruiting and selection Effort

• Review the recruiting and selection process: What went right? What went wrong?

• Review the outcome of the recruiting process

• Review the outcome of the selection process

• Review the performance of people who were hired

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NEL 15CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Recruitment and Selection

evaluate the peRfoRmance

Step 5 in the action plan presented in Recruitment and Selection Notebook 1.1 calls for the evaluation of the recruitment and selection effort. Did the plan result in hiring the best talent? It is not always easy to accomplish the strategic goals that have been established. There are different ways of determining success of a plan. With respect to recruitment, did the plan result in an increase in excellent applicants? With respect to selection, did the plan result in hiring new employees who have the potential to increase organizational efficiency over and above the contributions of current employees? We will address these questions throughout the book.

// RecRuitment and Selection and the hR pRofeSSion We have emphasized the need for HR staff to be aware of both the external and the internal influences that affect the working environment in which organizations operate. We have also argued that HR staff must not become isolated within the organization. There is another aspect to isolation: HR staff are professionals who must keep abreast of developments in their field through continuous learning. HR staff are responsible for knowing the latest legal and scientific information with respect to recruitment and selection. They are responsible for implementing policies and procedures that are in accordance with accepted professional standards, and which will lead to the recruitment and selection of the best talent.

Recruitment and selection activities within HRM are frequently carried out by in-house HR staff, sometimes assisted by consultants from management consulting firms. These in-house staff and consultants come to HRM from various educational back- grounds, which are augmented by practical experience in managing HR (see Recruitment and Selection Today 1.1).

Many practitioners and consultants involved in HRM hold membership in one or more professional associations and may be certified or registered with an association or professional licensing body in their area of specialization. Recruitment and Selection Today 1.2 gives some basic information on associations having an interest in recruitment and selection practices in Canada. These associations have professional involvement well beyond recruitment and selection. With membership in these associations come certain rights and obligations, including adherence to ethical codes or standards.

Only recently has the HR field gained recognition as an independent profession. Regardless of the educational and experiential routes taken into the HR profession, today there is an increasing emphasis on HR professionals holding the Chartered Professional in Human Resources (CPHR) designation. Legislation in Ontario and Quebec governs use of the designation. Recruitment and Selection Notebook 1.2 gives an overview of the requirements for the CPHR designation, which was formerly called the Certified Human Resources Professional (CHRP) designation and is still called that in Ontario.

Maintaining memberships in professional associations keeps the HR professional from becoming isolated and provides assistance when the practitioner encounters ethical difficulties. Professional associations have developed well-thought-out codes of conduct and behaviour that are designed to protect both the HR professionals and their clients. These codes help the professional to act in a manner that will be accepted by others in the profession. Whenever possible, we will use these codes to guide our discussion on recruitment and selection practices, as should any HR professional.

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Recruitment and Selection in Canada, 7e. NEL16

RECRuiTmEnT And sELECTiOn TOdAy 1.2

PROFESSIONAl ASSOCIATIONS INvOlvEd IN RECRuITMENT ANd SElECTION

Canadian Council of Human Resources Associations (CCHRA)

The CCHRA is a collaborative effort of provincial and spe- cialist HR associations. Its website provides links to each member organization. The mission of the CCHRA includes establishing national core standards for the HR profession and being the recognized resource on equivalency for HR qualifications across Canada.

membership Qualifications

Practitioners and students join provincial associations, not the CCHRA. Membership requirements vary and can be found on each provincial association’s website. Generally, provincial associations require completion of education and training as described under their professional certi- fication requirements; student memberships are normally

available for those taking approved courses in a postsec- ondary or degree program.

Professional Certification Offered

The Chartered Professional in Human Resources (CPHR) designation recognizes achievement within the HR field and the holder’s distinguished professionalism (see Recruitment and Selection Notebook 1.2). To receive this designation, practitioners may have to complete accredited courses, have had supervised professional experience in HR, or other requirements as specified by their provincial HR association (e.g., Human Resources Association of Nova Scotia: HRANS). In Ontario, the Human Resource Profes- sional Association, which still refers to the designation as the Certified Human Resources Professional (CHRP), offers two advanced certifications beyond the CHRP.

RECRuiTmEnT And sELECTiOn TOdAy 1.1

SEvERAl CAREER PATHS INTO RECRuITMENT ANd SElECTION

Ms. l. became interested in HRM while taking a business program at a community college. After obtaining her college degree, she took eight courses in order to earn a certifi- cate in Human Resources Management. Since then, Ms. l. has worked as an HR specialist in a large manufacturing plant, where she runs an assessment centre used by her employer to hire new workers. Ms. l. hopes to eventually move into a senior HRM position with her present employer or with a similar company in the manufacturing sector.

Mr. R. moved into the field after completing his degree in sociology at university. He started work in the HR department of an aircraft parts manufacturer and, over the following year, earned a Human Resources Certificate. Following completion of his HR program, he accepted a more senior HR position with a new employer. Much of his time is spent in recruitment and selection activities, espe- cially in monitoring the results of an employment equity program put in place by his current employer.

Ms. S. obtained a bachelor’s degree in psychology and became interested in personnel psychology. She went on to complete a two-year graduate program in industrial and organizational psychology. Since receiving her mas- ter’s degree, Ms. S. has worked in the HR department of a major urban hospital, where her primary duties are testing and interviewing job applicants for various hospital posi- tions. Her other duties focus on compensation and benefits.

Ms. M. also received a master’s degree in industrial and organizational psychology, but continued her studies to obtain a Ph.d. She works for an internationally based consulting firm, where she designs and implements large- scale recruitment and selection systems for banks, insur- ance companies, and other financial institutions. She is now a partner with the consulting firm and takes regular overseas assignments to assist clients in Europe and Asia with installation and maintenance of their selection systems.

(continued )

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NEL 17CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Recruitment and Selection

The Certified Human Resources leader (CHRl) was estab- lished for CHRP’s who had managerial responsibilities; the Certified Human Resources Executive (CHRE) designa- tion was established for CHRPs who had participated at the executive level in governance, business strategy, and executive compensation.

Canadian Psychological Association (including the Canadian society for industrial and Organizational Psychology)

The CPA is a national organization that represents all aspects of psychology, including industrial and organizational psy- chology and psychological testing and assessment. Psychol- ogists, particularly practitioners, may also be members of provincial psychological associations. The CPA website con- tains links to provincial associations, provincial regulatory bodies, and psychology programs at Canadian universities.

The Canadian Society for Industrial and Organiza- tional Psychology (CSIOP) comprises CPA members and other professionals with a particular interest in personnel psychology and organizational behaviour. More information on CSIOP can be found at http://csiop-scpio.ca

membership Qualifications

Master’s or Ph.d. degree in psychology.

Professional Certification Offered

Neither CPA nor CSIOP offers professional designations. Psychology is regulated at the provincial level through leg- islation. In order to use the designation “psychologist,” an individual must be registered with a provincial regulatory body after meeting its educational, supervised practice, and other requirements.

Source: Copyright © 2012, the Canadian Council of Human Resources Associations. All rights reserved.

RECRuiTmEnT And sELECTiOn nOTEbOOK 1.2

BECOME A CPHR

The Chartered Professional in Human Resources (CPHR) designation is a recognized level of achievement within the field of human resources. It reflects a conviction that the professional practice of human resources management can safeguard the interests of employers, employees, and the business community. The designation represents con- tinuing recognition of the bearer’s professionalism. CPHRs earn more and get promoted faster than non-designated HR professionals. In addition, there are many advantages to attaining your CPHR designation:

1. Proven Expertise—HR professionals who pursue the CPHR must meet all requirements set out by their pro- vincial HR associations, which aim to measure their competence and experience as HR professionals. By pursuing the CPHR designation, you’ll prove your ability to tackle all aspects of HR and demonstrate to employers and colleagues alike that you are a true HR expert.

2. Continual Learning—To maintain your designation, you will be challenged to continually update your knowledge and skills in HR. As a CPHR, you’ll gain expertise and leading-edge knowledge to help you manage complex and dynamic HR issues and, ulti- mately, become a strategic advisor.

3. demonstrated Commitment—CPHRs must undergo rigorous studies, comprehensive exam(s), and ongoing learning. They are, in short, committed to the profes- sion over the long term. By pursuing your CPHR, you demonstrate your commitment to constantly updating your HR skills and highlighting your long-term passion for the profession. You join the class of HR profes- sionals that employers seek out.

4. Knowledge Community—As a CPHR, you are part of an exclusive, nation-wide community of HR experts. Through special events, conferences, publications,

(continued )

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Recruitment and Selection in Canada, 7e. NEL18

// an intRoduction to ethical iSSueS and pRofeSSional StandaRdS Ethics are the means by which we distinguish what is right from what is wrong, what is moral from what is immoral, what may be done from what may not be done. Of course, the laws of our country also tell us what is or is not permissible by imposing penalties, such as fines or imprisonment, on violators. Ethics is a difficult subject because it deals with the large grey area between those behaviours that society punishes as illegal and those that everyone readily agrees are noble and upright. A careful consideration of ethics is important because HRM requires the balancing of the rights and interests of manage- ment with those of workers, as well as the rights and interests of the HR professional with those of the larger society (see Recruitment and Selection Notebook 1.3).

Professional standards follow from a code of ethics and provide guidance on how members should behave in certain situations. In the HR context of recruitment and selection, professional standards offer advice on things such as the appropriate use of employment tests, the standards that different tests must meet, and the qualifications of those using the employment tests.

Ethical standards regulate the behaviour of those using employment tests. In the case of psychologists, the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists*23 specifies four principles on which ethical behaviour is based:

1. Respect for dignity of the persons and peoples

2. Responsible caring

3. Integrity in relationships

4. Responsibility to society.

The ethical standards related to each of these principles apply to all testing carried out by psychologists. These ethical standards cover issues such as confidentiality of test results, informed consent, and the competence of those administering and interpreting

professional standards Professional standards provide guidance on how HR professionals should behave in certain situations including the use of employment tests.

ethics The determination of right and wrong; the standards of appropriate conduct or behaviour for members of a profes- sion: what those mem- bers may or may not do.

*Copyright © 2017, the Canadian Psychological Association. Permission granted for use of material.

and websites, you can connect with other HR profes- sionals across Canada. This powerful network proves invaluable as HR professionals look for solutions, ideas, and the ability to connect with others in the field.

5. Ethical behaviour—CPHRs commit themselves to high standards of ethical behaviour. They are held to the CCHRA National Code of Ethics that covers a

range of important professional issues including con- fidentiality, conflict of interest, professional growth, and more. You gain the confidence of your employer, colleagues, and peers with the knowledge that you are committed to a Code of Ethics that demands the highest standards for the profession.

Join the thousands of HR professionals across Canada who have discovered the CPHR advantage.

Source: Adapted from http://www.chrp.ca/?page=Become_CHRP.

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NEL 19CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Recruitment and Selection

the test results. The foremost concern is to protect the welfare and dignity of those being tested. A consumer or client may bring any concerns over a psychologist’s use of tests, including selection tests, to appropriate regulatory bodies.

The ethical code of the Canadian Council of Human Resource Associations (CCHRA)* that applies to HR practitioners specifies four major principles similar to those in the CPA Code of Ethics. Each principle is then followed by several statements that are related to the principle and guide the CPHR’s actions. The four principles are as follows:

Principle P1: Members have a duty to discharge all of their Professional responsi- bilities honourably, competently, and with integrity. Principle P2: Members have a duty to protect and promote the Profession and to cooperate with the Association. Principle P3: Members have a duty to act in the best interest of their clients and employers. Principle P4: Members must at all times act in a manner that advances the prin- ciples of health and safety, human rights, equity, dignity, and overall well-being in the workplace.

*Copyright © 2016, the Canadian Council of Human Resources Associations. All rights reserved.

RECRuiTmEnT And sELECTiOn nOTEbOOK 1.3

lOOKING FOR COMMON GROuNd: ETHICAl COdES

The professional associations described in Recruitment and Selection Today 1.3 have ethical codes that apply to their members. In all of these codes, members are required to obey the laws of the country, avoid conflicts of interest, and remain current in their fields of exper- tise. In addition, these ethics codes outline other obliga- tions that their members have to clients, management, and workers, as well as to the larger society. One of the principles in the Code of Ethics & Rules of Professional Conduct of the Canadian Council of Human Resources Associations states that CPHRs “must at all times act in a manner that advances the principles of health and safety, human rights, equity, dignity, and overall well-being in the workplace.”

The CPA’s Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists presents the following four ethical principles, which pro- vide a guide for individual ethical decision making: respect for the dignity of persons, responsible caring, integrity in relationships, and responsibility to society.

All of these ethical codes place constraints on what their members may and may not do when practising HRM, including recruitment and selection. However, ethical decision making is not always clear-cut; often decisions must be made in the grey areas of ethics where reasonable people differ in what they consider to be right and wrong. To complicate mat- ters even more, an action that is considered ethical under one code might be deemed unethical under another. These incon- sistencies can and do occur because the CCHRA and CPA eth- ical codes differ in content, scope, and emphasis. The bottom line to this discussion is that ethics is a complex matter and has the potential to be the Achilles’ heel of many a promising HR career. Professionals practising recruitment and selection should read carefully the ethical codes that apply to them and their work, and then discuss the codes with colleagues.

The CCHRA Code of Ethics and Rules of Professional Conduct and the CPA Canadian Code of Ethics for Psy- chologists can be found online using Google or any other search engines.

Source: Copyright © 2012, the Canadian Council of Human Resources Associations. All rights reserved.

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Recruitment and Selection in Canada, 7e. NEL20

// ethical dilemmaS in RecRuitment and Selection Ethical dilemmas frequently occur during the employment testing of job applicants with various selection tools during the selection process. From a legal standpoint, an employ- ment interview is subject to the same set of regulations and ethical considerations as any other employment test and must meet professional standards when used in making high-stakes decisions. We present three examples of ethical dilemmas in Recruitment and Selection Today 1.3 that will help to illustrate why codes of ethics are so important and why a professional may need assistance in deciding how to behave.

Ethical dilemmas raise difficult questions that cut to the very core of ethics. But such questions are unavoidable because ethics are central to any group representing itself as a professional association. Fortunately, professional HR associations in Canada have written codes and standards to provide guidance on ethical matters to their members. Violations of these codes and standards may result in professional censure, embarrass- ment, and, in the most serious cases, removal from the profession. Membership in the profession is based on adherence to its ethics and professional standards. Membership in the professional association is a public guarantee that the member operates in accordance with accepted principles. Naturally, these codes should factor heavily into the recruitment and selection work done by HR professionals and described in this book.

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In today’s world, companies and their employees are expected to act ethically.

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NEL 21CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Recruitment and Selection

RECRuiTmEnT And sELECTiOn TOdAy 1.3

ETHICAl dIlEMMAS

1. Situation. You are a management consultant who is asked by a large employer to design and implement a system to select workers for a manufacturing plant. The plant is unionized, and there is a history of poor union– management relations. Management informs you that it intends to break the union and, as a part of this effort, you are to come up with a selection system that will screen out all new job applicants having pro-union attitudes. The idea is to skew the work force toward management so that the union can be broken in a future decertification vote. What’s more, you are to keep the purpose of the selection system a secret and are asked by management to sign a contract in which you promise not to reveal its intentions to the union, the labour board, or any other outsiders.

dilemma. Where do your loyalties lie? Whose interests should you serve? Is it wrong for you, as the manage- ment consultant, to accept a fee to do what management is asking? Is it against your professional code of ethics?

2. Situation. Imagine that you are an HR manager who is considering the use of a selection system. You know that it will do a good job of selecting the best workers, but it also screens out members of visible minorities at a rate much greater than that for the white majority.

dilemma. Should you use this system that will improve productivity, or try to find another that does not screen out so many members of visible-minority groups, but may not be as effective? What if the new system does not do as good a job at selecting the best workers? Should you favour societal goals of increasing visible-minority representation in the work force or the interests of your company? does the selection system violate your code of ethics or legal requirements?

3. Situation. You have been directed by your manager to find a way to reduce employee theft. You believe that this can be accomplished by screening out people who fail a commer- cially available “honesty” test. You purchase the test and administer it to all current employees and new applicants and reject or dismiss those who fail the test, including long- term employees with no history of dishonesty.

dilemma. Should you be concerned that the test is screening out honest people? Should you be concerned about the reliability and validity of the test and whether it is appropriate to use in your situation? Should you be concerned about wrongful dismissal lawsuits on the part of employees, or human rights actions on the part of appli- cants? does use of the tests violate your code of ethics, or the law? Can you defend your actions?

// human ReSouRceS and the inteRnet One of the most significant developments in recent years has been the growth of the Internet, which has made available to students and practitioners a vast array of resources and information related to every aspect of recruitment and selection. It is impossible to list every HR resource that is available on the Internet. Recruitment and Selection Notebook 1.4 lists some sources that we feel are very relevant to recruitment and selec- tion. Because URLs for websites often change or can be quite lengthy and difficult to type from a text source, we no longer list them in the text. To find the site, simply type the name into your favourite browser. We suggest that you research the sources we have provided.

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Recruitment and Selection in Canada, 7e. NEL22

RECRuiTmEnT And sELECTiOn nOTEbOOK 1.4

uSEFul SOuRCES

Human Resources–related Organizations Human Resources information sources Academy of Management Canadian Business Administrative Sciences Association of Canada Canadian HR Reporter American Psychological Association Career Outlook BC Human Resources Management Association Globe and Mail Report on Business Canadian Council of Human Resources Associations HRFocus Canadian Psychological Association HR-Guide.com Canadian Society for Industrial & Organizational Psychology HR Magazine Employment and Social development Canada HR Performance Solutions Human Resources Association of New Brunswick People Management Human Resources Association of Nova Scotia Statistics Canada Human Resources Institute of Alberta Workforce Human Resources Management Association of Manitoba Human Resources Professionals Association (Ontario+) International Personnel Assessment Council International Public Management Association for Human Resources Ordre des conseillers en ressources humaines agréés Saskatchewan Association of Human Resource Professionals Society for Human Resource Management Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Research Journals in Recruiting and selection Academy of Management Review Canadian Journal of Administrative Studies Canadian Labour Law Reporter Harvard Business Review Human Performance Human Resource Management Human Resource Management Review International Journal of Selection and Assessment Journal of Applied Psychology Journal of Business Ethics Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology Journal of Personnel Psychology Journal of Staffing and Recruitment Personnel Personnel Journal Personnel Psychology Personnel Review Public Personnel Management

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23CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Recruitment and Selection NEL

// SummaRy Effective recruitment and selection are important because they contribute to organiza- tional productivity and worker growth. Recruitment and selection practices, which have found a place in organization practices, play an essential role in contemporary organiza- tions. Effective human resource management, including recruitment and selection, must be carried out within the context of a strategic plan developed by the organization. This chapter reviews the steps in strategic planning as they relate to recruitment and selection. HR professionals must not become isolated from society and their peers. In recognition of this, professional associations and groups exist to help HR professionals and their cli- ents by establishing ethical codes and standards of practice. Codes of ethics are important to HR as it continues to develop as a profession.

key teRmS

Ethics, p. 18 Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS), p. 4 Professional standards, p. 18 Recruitment, p. 5 Selection, p. 5 Strategy, p 7 Talent management, p. 3

diScuSSion QueStionS

1. How can HR professionals demonstrate that they add value to a company’s bottom line?

2. What are possible consequences of using poor or outdated recruitment and selection practices?

3. What should be the strategic objectives of any recruitment and selection plan?

4. Discuss the impact that current socio-economic conditions are having on recruitment and selection practices.

5. What are ethics and how do they relate to recruitment and selection?

exeRciSeS

1. Visit the Statistics Canada website to determine the current socio-economic and demographic composition of the Canadian work force. Identify how these factors may have an impact on HR recruitment and selection. Illustrate with examples.

2. Think of a job you have held and write two brief profiles of that job. The first profile is to be that of a 95th-percentile job performer—that is, persons you have worked with who would be better than 95 out of 100 of their coworkers. What were those people like? What skills and abilities did they have? Then write a second profile of 5th-percentile job performers—people who were only as good as the bottom

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24 NELRecruitment and Selection in Canada, 7e.

5 percent of their coworkers. Compare the profiles and discuss how use of recruitment and selection might be helpful in choosing the 95th-percentile rather than the 5th- percentile performer. How much difference would it make to have the 95th-percentile rather than the 5th-percentile performer on the job? If you were the employer, would these differences be of sufficient value for you to invest the necessary money into recruitment and selection in order to get the 95th-percentile performer?

3. As a class or in small groups, discuss the three scenarios raised in the ethics section of this chapter. Decide what the HR professional should do in each instance, and pro- vide an ethical justification for your decision based on the CCHRA Code of Ethics.

4. Write a brief summary of your preferred career track in HRM. What professional associations would you join and what activities would you engage in? Where do recruitment and selection fit in the mix of activities that you have planned for yourself?

CAsE sTudy RECRuiTmEnT And sELECTiOn AT gOOgLE

Google is consistently ranked by Fortune magazine as one of the best places to work. It provides employees with excellent pay and a series of perks that are unheard of at most corporations. Some of these perks are flex hours; bring your dog to work; casual dress; on-site free massage and yoga; free snacks, drinks, and meals; and a child-care centre among many others. No wonder that Google receives close to 3 million job applications a year. To find the best talent, Google uses care- fully selected strategies, methods, and techniques. Google recruits at college and university campuses and through the Careers section of its website. Google is very selective, hiring only about 7000 of the 3 million applicants. Google uses different methods to select people for different jobs, but there are some common elements: preliminary screening, employment tests, interviews, and background checks. Google is looking for intelligence, creativity, leadership, and fit with the Google culture, as well as the role the person will play as part of Google. Hiring decisions are not made by managers but having a committee composed of peers make the decision, which is much like the process a university uses in hiring, pro- moting, and granting tenure to faculty, rather than hierarchical structures used in industry. One can say that in many ways Google operates in the knowledge industry much like a university.

QueStionS

The intent of this exercise is not to have you develop detailed answers but to begin thinking about the many factors that affect recruitment and selection. We appreciate that the case does not contain detailed information but in our opinion that informa- tion is not needed to meet our primary objective. We will review in detail many of the components of Google’s recruitment and selection procedures later in this text. For now, we would like you to discuss the following points.

1. Is Google’s elaborate recruitment and selection system justified? What are appropriate criteria for assessing its effectiveness?

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25CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Recruitment and Selection NEL

2. Google receives over 3 000 000 applications for 7000 positions. Is this an effective approach? What is the cost, particularly the human cost, associ- ated with reviewing all of these applications? How do you reduce the number of applicants to a reasonable number that can be run through the selection system?

3. Provide examples of how technology might be used to facilitate and improve the recruitment and selection used by Google.

4. What criteria should Google use in selecting “team players”?

5. Does “peer-based hiring” lead to better employees?

Source: Schmidt, E. and Rosenberg, J. 2014. “How Google Works.” New York, NY: Grand Central Publishing.

// endnoteS 1. Screenrant, Batman v. Superman: Dawn of Justice Review. Retrieved July 24,

1017, from http://screenrant.com/batman-v-superman-movie-review-2016.

2. Ployhart, R.E., C.H. Van Iddekinge, and W.I. MacKenzie Jr. 2011. “Acquiring and Developing Human Capital in Service Contexts: The Interconnectedness of Human Capital Resources.” Academy of Management Journal 54: 353–368.

3. Michaels, E., H. Handfield-Jones, and B. Axelrod. 2001. The War for Talent. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Press.

4. Government of Canada. “Vision, Mission and Guiding Principles.” December 31, 2015. Retrieved August 8, 2016, from https://www.canada.ca/en/public- service-commission/corporate/about-us/vision-mission-guiding-principles. html?undefined&wbdisabletrue

5. WestJet. “About Us.” Retrieved August 8, 2016, from https://www.canadapost .ca/web/en/pages/aboutus/details.page?article=visionvalues

6. Canada Post. “Vision, Values & Leadership Behaviours.” Retrieved July 31, 2017, from https://www.canadapost.ca/web/en/pages/aboutus/details. page?article=visionvalues

7. Belcourt, M. and K.J. McBey. 2016. Strategic Human Resources Planning, 6th ed. Toronto: Nelson.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid

10. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich. 2016. “KOF Index of Globalization.” Retrieved July 19, 2016, from http://globalization.kof.ethz.ch

11. Northwest Territories. “A Guide to Internet Recruiting.” Retrieved May 20, 2014, from http://www.hr.gov.nt.ca/sites/default/files/documents/guidetoin ternetrecruiting.pdf

12. Chase, S. June 17, 2015. “Cyberattacks Deal Crippling Blow to Canadian Government Websites.” The Globe and Mail. Retrieved July 19, 2016, from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/ canadian-government-websites-appear-to-have-been-attacked/article24997399

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26 NELRecruitment and Selection in Canada, 7e.

13. All demographic data in this section are from the 2011 census and are avail- able from Statistics Canada at http://www12.statcan.gc.ca

14. Statistics Canada, “2011 Census of Population.” Retrieved August 5, 2016, from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/index-eng.cfm

15. Ibid.

16. “Perspectives on Labour and Income, 2007.” Retrieved January 4, 2012, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/bsolc/olc-cel/olc-cel?catno=75-001-X&lang=eng

17. Kelloway, E.K., V.M. Catano, and A.L. Day. 2011. People and Work in Canada. Toronto: Nelson.

18. Ployhart, R.E. 2006. Staffing Organization, 3rd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

19. Tamkin, P., M. Cowling, and W. Hunt. 2008. People and the Bottom Line. Report 448. London, UK: Institute for Employment Studies.

20. Wright, P.M., T.M. Gardner, and L.M. Moynihan. 2003. “The Impact of HR Practices on the Performance of Business Units.” Human Resources Management Journal, 13, 21–36.

21. Welch, J. 2005. Winning. New York, NY: Harper Business.

22. Tamkin et al. 2008.

23. The Canadian Psychological Association. 2017. Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists, Fourth Edition. Available online at http://www.cpa.ca/docs/File/ Ethics/CPA_Code_2017_4thEd.pdf

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NEL

CHAPTER

2

CHAPTER LEARning OuTCOmEs This chapter develops the idea that personnel recruitment and selection strategies based on information obtained through scientific methods are more likely to benefit an orga- nization than decisions based on impressions or intuition. The chapter begins with an illustration of a typical hiring process and goes on to examine basic concepts of reliability and validity that underlie contemporary recruitment and selection practices.

AfTER REAding THis CHAPTER, yOu sHOuLd bE AbLE TO:

• discuss the basic components that make up a traditional personnel selection model;

• explain the concepts of reliability and validity;

• recognize the importance and necessity of establishing the reliability and validity of measures used in personnel selection;

• identify common strategies that are used to provide evidence on the reliability and validity of measures used in personnel selection;

• discuss the requirement for measures used in personnel selection to evaluate applicants fairly and in an unbiased fashion;

• describe the practical steps needed to develop a legally defensible selection system.

fOundATiOns Of RECRuiTmEnT And

sELECTiOn i: Reliability and Validity

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Recruitment and Selection in Canada, 7e. NEL28

THE “sHAm PsyCHOmETRiC TEsT” COnTROvERsy

Recently, a controversy erupted in the United Kingdom con- cerning a psychometric test used by the Department of Work and Pensions. The test was developed to help unem- ployed people find work. The following article in Personnel Today gives an overview of the controversy and the nature of the test. This controversy also led to several days of questioning in Parliament. We will deal with the issues of validity and reliability in this chapter and link them to the hiring process. Here is the article by John Hackston from Personnel Today.

Psychometric testing has been in the news recently, and not in a good way. According to recent reports, the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) has required unemployed people to take “bogus” psychometric tests, and threatened to take their benefits away if they refused to do so.

A Guardian report and an accompanying video go on to say that the test is a “sham” and will produce the same results no matter what answers are given. Some websites and blogs go further, saying, for example, that “this ‘test’ is a tool for abuse and psychological torture.”

It seems this particular questionnaire was developed as part of a pilot project put together by the Cabinet Office’s behavioural insight team, otherwise known as the “nudge unit.” This group uses two approaches that are surprisingly novel in governmental decision making. First, come up with ideas for small interventions to “nudge” individuals’ behav- iour in a direction that both works well for them and saves the Government money. Second, carry out randomised controlled trials to see if these interventions actually work.

One trial was in job centres, where 2000 jobseekers were randomly assigned to one of two groups—half went through the existing system and half went through a new process. For the second group, their first visit included a conversation about getting back to work; on every sub- sequent visit they were encouraged to make clear plans for the next two weeks, and if they were still unemployed after eight weeks they were given further help. The results showed that after 13 weeks, the second group were 15%– 20% less likely to be signing on than the first group. The project has now been expanded to larger trials.

Criticisms

So, a success story? Not quite. The psychometric test that has come in for criticism was part of this project, used at the eight-week stage to help jobseekers identify their

strengths, thereby making them more able to put their best foot forward in applying for jobs. It is short (just 48 ques- tions), is completed online and outputs a report with the respondent’s five key strengths—what’s not to like? Plenty, unfortunately, as the implementation of this idea is less than perfect. There are a number of issues:

• Presentation. Try the test for yourself here and see what you think, but the appearance of the questionnaire does not inspire confidence. It has a very basic look and feel, the title text does not quite fit in the space reserved for it, and there is the occasional grammatical error (such as “I always look on bright side” and “Try to find a new way to use them then every day”). This may seem a little picky, but if people don’t take the ques- tionnaire seriously, they will not take any advice derived from it seriously. In the jargon of testing, it will have low face validity.

• The questions. Several questions are a little strange, for example: “In the last month, I have been thrilled by excellence in music, art, drama, film, sport, science or mathematics” or “I have not created anything of beauty in the last year.” Some may not be easy to understand for people with lower levels of literacy or who do not have English as a first language, because of unusual phrasing or double negatives (“I hesitate to sacrifice my self- interest for the benefit of groups I am in” or “I am rarely as excited about the good fortune of others as I am about my own”). As these groups are likely to be over-represented among jobseekers, this may be an issue. Without some additional expla- nation or context, people will misunderstand the questions and the results will be less valid.

• The report. The report lists the respondent’s five key strengths, based on their answers; potentially this is a very positive message. However, it is not immediately obvious that this is what the report is doing, and some additional text helping the reader to understand how they can use the results would be extremely helpful. Some critics have even sug- gested that people will get the same report no matter what answers they put down; this is, in fact, not the case and different reports will be generated from different answers—although, as the reports are very similar, this is not obvious.

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NEL 29CHAPTER 2 Foundations of Recruitment and Selection I: Reliability and Validity

• The origins of the questionnaire. It has been reported in the press that the DWP test is a cut- down version of a much longer (120 or 240 ques- tion) “character strengths” survey published by the U.S.-based VIA Institute on Character, and that VIA refused permission for the use of the shorter questionnaire, calling it a “non-validated version.” If true, this is very worrying, as it would mean that this new version of the test is not fit for purpose.

• The way the questionnaire appears to have been used. This may be the biggest issue. Forcing people to complete an open personality question- naire against their will (if this is indeed what has happened) is unlikely to have a useful outcome. Doing so on a large-scale programme in the full glare of publicity could be seen as asking for trouble. This is a real shame, because we know that accurate personality questionnaires, with spe- cific and focused reports, can be incredibly useful in career counselling.

Can the positives outweigh the negatives? Any personality questionnaire is a means to an end, but how it is used is just as important. Unfortunately, the world seems to have decided that the DWP questionnaire was designed from the outset to be used in a less than posi- tive way.

Questions such as “is it reliable?” “is it valid?” or even “could it be useful?” may be drowned out—and the ques- tionnaire, for all its flaws, is part of an approach that does seem to give results.

Errors in implementation can be corrected and a new version trialled; this is a part of the whole ethos of evidence-based policy. Let us hope that the furore does not prevent this happening, and does not detract from the many places where psychometric tools are used in a posi- tive way to widen and inform people’s career choices, to help them in the job search process, and to aid their devel- opment once in employment.

Source: John Hackston, “The Sham Psychometric Test Controversy” Personnel Today, May 10, 2013. http://www.personneltoday.com/hr/

the-sham-psychometric-test-controversy.

The basic premise of this text is that scientific methods will enable an employer to hire job applicants who possess the KSAOs (knowledge, skills, abilities, or other attributes) and competencies that are required to perform a specific job. One of the concerns with the test used by the DWP is that it was never validated for an intended purpose. In fact, it is not clear what the purpose of the test is. What KSAOs or competencies identified by the test might be related to any job an unemployed person might be interested in pursuing? We argue that science-based selection will meet this goal of hiring the right people for the job and that there is a process that should be followed to identify the KSAOs and competencies and then to measure them; that is, to determine if a job applicant has the “right stuff.” Figure 2.1 presents an outline of the components that make up a selection system. We will review this process and the different elements of the system over the course of this text. In this chapter we will deal with the issues of reliability and validity. These concepts are essential to the legal defensibility of any selection procedure.

By using reliable and valid selection methods, HR managers save themselves and their company much aggravation and grief. The bottom line is that selection proce- dures that are ethical and follow professional standards are defensible, should they be challenged in court or in some employment tribunal. Science-based selection produces employees that are efficient and productive.

Using an employment test with unknown reliability and validity may lead to many uncomfortable minutes on a witness stand under cross-examination. Imagine yourself in the situation trying to defend some procedure you used to assess job applicants when you had not determined the reliability or validity of the procedure and proceeded to make employment decisions based on the procedure.

In this chapter we will develop a basic understanding of several of the measurement and validity issues that surfaced in the DWP case and with which every HR practitioner

KSAOs The knowledge, skills, abilities, and other attributes necessary for a new incumbent to do well on the job; also referred to as job, employment, or worker specifications.

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Recruitment and Selection in Canada, 7e. NEL30

must be familiar. There are no guarantees, even when professionals attempt to follow accepted procedures, that their work will meet standards set by courts or tribunals, but HR professionals should at least know the standards they are expected to meet in order to defend their work.

Job Analysis

Develop predictors

related to KSAOs

Develop criteria related

to job dimensions

NO

Does the selection

system have utility?

Implement the selection

system

NO

A

B

C

C

D

D

E

Performance domain:

Identify job dimensions

Obtain criteria data

Is the selection

system valid?

1. Re-analyze job

2. Review performance

and KSAO constructs

3. Review criteria and

predictors

Periodically review

selection system

Obtain predictor data

YES

YES

Identify KSAO constructs

figuRE 2.1

JOb AnALysis, sELECTiOn, And CRiTERiOn mEAsuREmEnTs Of PERfORmAnCE: A sysTEms APPROACH

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NEL 31CHAPTER 2 Foundations of Recruitment and Selection I: Reliability and Validity

// The RecRuiTmenT And SelecTiOn PROceSS In most employment situations, there are many applicants for each available job. The employer’s goal is to hire an applicant who possesses the KSAOs required to successfully perform the job being filled. The employer makes a guess about which applicant will per- form the job most effectively. This basic decision, which is made hundreds of times each day throughout Canada, is the end result of a complex process. Correct guesses by the employer have positive benefits for the organization and the employee; bad guesses not only affect the productivity and profitability of the company but also may have negative emotional consequences for the poorly performing employee. As we saw in Chapter 1, bad hiring decisions may cost an employer considerable amounts of money. In addition, bad hiring practices may lead to severe legal consequences.

As part of making a decision, the employer must have a good idea of both the duties that will be performed as part of the job and the level of performance required for job success. The employer must identify the KSAOs that are required for job success and measure or assess the KSAOs or competencies of all job applicants. In Chapter 4 we will discuss different techniques that provide this necessary informa- tion. Hiring someone through an assessment of job-related attributes is based on an assumption that higher levels of attributes are linked to higher levels of job perfor- mance. Recruitment and selection need not be based on guesses on who is best suited to fill a position.

The hiRing PROceSS

Recruitment and Selection Today 2.1 outlines the procedure used by the Toronto Police Service in selecting new recruits for the position of police constable. Candidates must meet a set of minimum requirements; they also must not have a criminal record for which a pardon has not been granted. If candidates meet the minimum requirements, they may proceed to register for general information sessions and undertake a series of employment tests including a test of cognitive ability (PATI), written communication (WCT), physical readiness evaluation for police (PREP), Behavioural Personnel Assess- ment Device for police (BPAD), and vision and hearing tests. Once the applicant has received a certificate from the Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police certifying the test results, he or she may submit an application to Toronto Police Service. After a review of testing results, competitive candidates undergo a pre-screening and pre-background questionnaire followed by an extensive interview that delves into all aspects of the candidate’s personal and professional life. Candidates who are considered for employment are then asked to undergo a more extensive background check and to complete a clinical personality assessment and psychological examinations. At this stage there are likely to be more qualified candidates who have passed all the steps than there are positions, so the recruiting team compares can- didates and decides which applicants will receive employment offers. An offer is then made to candidates pending successful completion of a medical exam.

The Toronto Police Service selection process, which is similar to many others in Ontario, illustrates the major components of per- sonnel selection that we will be discussing throughout this book. These are the components that a candidate sees; however, there

Cadets training on Parade square at Royal Canadian Mounted Police Depot, RCMP training academy in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.

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ba rr

W eb

st er

/ A

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Ph ot

o

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Recruitment and Selection in Canada, 7e. NEL32

Sources: http://www.torontopolice.on.ca/careers/uni_minreq.php and http://www.torontopolice.on.ca/careers/uni_become_officer.php. Courtesy of the Toronto Police Service and the Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police.

RECRuiTmEnT And sELECTiOn TOdAy 2.1

SELECTION PROCESS FOR TORONTO POLICE CONSTAbLES

minimum Qualifications

• be a Canadian citizen or permanent resident of Canada

• be at least 18 years of age

• be physically and mentally able to perform the duties of the position, having regard to your own safety and the safety of members of the public

• Have successfully completed at least four years of secondary school education or its equivalent. (Note: Official transcripts and diplomas will be required.) Where education has been completed outside Ontario, official proof of equivalency must be obtained

• be of good moral character and habits, meaning that you are an individual other people would look upon as being trustworthy and having integrity

In addition, you must:

• Have no criminal convictions for which a pardon has not been granted

• Possess a valid driver’s licence with no more than six accumulated demerit points, permitting you to drive an automobile in Ontario with full driving privileges

• Have current certification in CPR and first aid by the time the offer of employment is given

• Possess a valid O.A.C.P. (Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police) certificate

• Have a minimum of 20/40 (uncorrected) vision, with normal colour acuity

• Successfully pass the hearing standards as out- lined by the O.A.C.P.

• be able to pass a security clearance as well as a background investigation, credit and reference checks

selection Process

• Complete online registration for a General Information Session (GIS)

• Attend General Information Session (GIS)

• Toronto Police Recruiter will be in contact with you

• Complete online registration for one of our mentoring sessions

• Attend your registered PREP, PATI, or WCT mentoring session

• Register for O.A.C.P. testing with Applicant Testing Services

• Perform Test:

– PATI (Police Analytical Thinking Inventory)

– WCT (Written Communication Test)

– PREP (Physical Readiness Evaluation for Police)

– Vision and Hearing

– bPAD (behavioural Personnel Assessment Device for police)

• Obtain O.A.C.P. Certificate of Results

• Submit Toronto Police Service online application

• Pre-Screening

• Pre-background Questionnaire (PbQ)

• blended Interview

• Minnesota Multi-Phasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)

• background Investigation

• Psychological Assessment

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