# Subject A has the following values: Minute ventilation = 7 liters/minute, Respiratory frequency = 16 Br/minute, PaCO2 = 35 mm Hg, PECO2 = 27 mm Hg. Identify whether each of the following are correct or incorrect.

Please state each statement is right or wrong and explain in detail.

1. Subject A has the following values: Minute ventilation = 7 liters/minute, Respiratory frequency = 16 Br/minute, PaCO2 = 35 mm Hg, PECO2 = 27 mm Hg. Identify whether each of the following are correct or incorrect.

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Subject A has the following values: Minute ventilation = 7 liters/minute, Respiratory frequency = 16 Br/minute, PaCO2 = 35 mm Hg, PECO2 = 27 mm Hg. Identify whether each of the following are correct or incorrect.
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a. VT = 2.3 liters

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b. VD/VT = 0.23

c. the alveolar volume is 77% of the Vt

d. VA = 5.4 liters/minute

2. Subject B is a 5 foot tall 185 pound male with the following values: Minute ventilation = 8 liters/minute, Respiratory frequency = 30 Br/minute, PaCO2 = 50 mm Hg, PECO2 = 20 mm Hg. Identify whether each of the following is correct or incorrect.

a. VT = 0.27 liters

b. VT is within normal limits

c. VD/VT is 0.6

d. VD/VT is within normal limits

e. The patient is hypoventilating

f. The respiratory rate is within normal limits

g. The patient’s dead space volume 185 ml

h. The patient’s dead space volume is within normal limits

i. The PaCO2 is elevated simply due to shallow breathing

3. Subject C has the following values: Minute ventilation = 8, liters/minute, Respiratory frequency = 4 Br/minute, PaCO2 = 20 mm Hg, PECO2 = 15 mm Hg. Identify whether each of the following is correct or incorrect.

a. VD/VT is within normal limits

b. VT is within normal limits

c. the subject is hyperventilating

d. the PaCO2 is low because the patient is breathing rapidly

e. the PaCO2 is low because the alveolar ventilation is higher than normal

4. Subject D has the following values: Minute ventilation = 60 liters/minute, Respiratory frequency = 60 Br/minute, PaCO2 = 30 mm Hg, PECO2 = 24 mm Hg, VCO2 = 1668 ml/minute. Identify whether each of the following is correct or incorrect.

a. the tidal volume = 1 liter

b. the VD/VT is 0.45

c. the alveolar ventilation = 28 liters/minute

d. the subject’s metabolic rate is higher than normal

e. this subject is probably exercising

5. Subject E is a 21 year old college student who has the following values at baseline: PaO2 54 mm Hg, PaCO2 = 60 mm Hg while breathing FIO2 = 0.21 @ PB = 690 mm Hg. A Respiratory Therapist administers additional oxygen with an FIO2 = 0.4. Identify whether each of the following are correct or incorrect.

a. At baseline, the PaCO2 is within normal limits

b. At baseline, the PaO2 is within normal limits

c. At baseline, the value for PaO2 explained by hypoventilation alone

d. The a/A ratio is consistent with low V/Q or shunting

e. Administration of oxygen will result in a decrease in PaCO2 proportional to the increase in PaO2

f. Administration of 40% oxygen would be expected to result in a PAO2 = 257 mm Hg

6. Subject F has the following values: FIO2 = 0.7, PaO2 250 mm Hg, Hb 6 g/dl, SVO2 = 50%, CO = 6 lpm, PaCO2 = 35 mm Hg. Estimate the SaO2 and PVO2 using the normal oxyhemoglogin dissociation curve, and identify whether each of the following is correct or incorrect.

a. The subject has low V/Q

b. The SaO2 = 100%

c. The PVO2 = 26 mm Hg

d. The oxygen consumption is about 280 ml/minute

e. The subject must be exercising

f. Dissolved CO2 = 0.105 meQ/L

In: Nursing

##### Case Study: Introduction to the Gastrointestinal System and Accessory Structures Mark Deak, a 22-year-old male client,…

Case Study: Introduction to the Gastrointestinal System and Accessory Structures

Mark Deak, a 22-year-old male client, is seen at an outpatient clinic for the recent development of pain with eating and bloody loose bowel movements. He has generalized abdominal colicky pain that radiates to his right shoulder. At times, he vomits bile; before the bloody stools began, he had episodes of clay-colored stools and tea-colored urine. Currently, his urine is dark amber-colored. The renal profile is within normal range. The vital signs are T, 100° F; BP, 150/80 mm Hg; HR, 100 beats/minute; RR, 22 breaths/minute. He asked the LPN/LVN what he needs to do to prepare for the ordered upper GI, barium enema, and cholecystography, and what to expect.

a. Explain the overall prep the client will need to do prior to the scheduled tests and in what order the diagnostic tests should be scheduled by the nurse.

b. Explain instructions the nurse should provide the client for the diagnostic tests.

In: Nursing