Topic Selection Assignment

Topic Selection Assignment


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My literature review topic is the impact of recreational activities on the stress levels

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among Georgia’s public safety officers. My exploratory question is whether routinely engaging

in recreational activities has a positive impact on Georgia’s public safety officers’ self-reported

levels of stress related to their employment. My hypothesis is that public safety officers who

regularly engage in recreational activities they enjoy will have lower levels of stress, based on

self-reported data, than public safety officers who do not make time for recreational activities in

their weekly or monthly schedules.

I believe the research project which will come from this literature review is well suited

for a mixed-methods project. A mixed methods approach will offer quantitative results from a

standardized stress instrument, which can be used as a pre and post-test, and qualitative or in-

depth reflections from participants regarding causes of stress and responses to interventions.

Annotated Bibliography Article #1

Vella, E. J., Milligan, B., & Bennett, J. L. (2013). Participation in outdoor recreation program

predicts improved psychosocial well-being among veterans with post-traumatic stress

disorder: A pilot study. Military Medicine, 178(3), 254-260.

Abstract: Purpose: Evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-day, 3-night outdoor recreation intervention

involving fly-fishing in reducing the psychological concomitants of stress among 74

veterans (M = 47.27, SD = 14.55 years) with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Methods: Participants completed repeated assessments of attentiveness, mood,

depression, anxiety, and somatic stress across 3 time periods, corresponding to 2 weeks

before the trip (baseline), the last day of the trip, and a 6-week follow-up. Assessments of

perceptual stress, PTSD symptoms, and sleep quality were also administered during the

baseline and follow-up periods. Results: Acute effects were observed for improvements

in attentiveness and positive mood states, coupled with significant and sustained

reductions in negative mood states, anxiety, depression, and somatic symptoms of stress.



Comparisons between the baseline and follow-up periods revealed significant

improvements in sleep quality and reductions in perceptual stress and PTSD symptoms.

Conclusions: The current findings suggest that combat veterans with PTSD may benefit

from participation in group-based outdoor recreation as a means to improve psychosocial



The article’s research question was centered on whether a recreational fly-fishing

intervention could help reduce stress levels for veterans with PTSD. The research hypothesis was

that the fly-fishing interventions would help the military veteran participants cope with their

stress and thus experience improved sleep quality. The research was quantitative, utilizing a

longitudinal predictive design and standardized assessment tools (Brief Symptom Inventory-18;

PTSD check list, military version; Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule; Perceived

Stress Scale; and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory). The results indicated veterans engaging in

fly-fishing activities reported significant reductions in their self-reported levels of stress, anxiety,

and depression and improved sleep quality at three time periods after the intervention. The

findings suggest outdoor recreational activities can be a way to help improve self-reported levels

of stress, improved mood, and improved sleep quality.

Annotated Bibliography Article #2

Craig, P. J., Alger, D. M., Bennett, J. L., & Martin, T. P. (2020). The transformative nature of

fly-fishing for veterans and military personnel with posttraumatic stress disorder.

Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 54(2), 150-172.


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